SOC (standard operating conditions), 75, 223
Software programs
derating calculations, 126–128
shading analysis, 52–53
simulation systems, 129, 131
time-step analysis, 128–129
Solar cells
concentrating, 54
crystalline silicon, 75–78
described, 60–62, 62f
fabrication and manufacturing processes, 75–78
GaAs, 75
manufacturers, 12
materials, 72–73
monocrystalline, 76
N-layer, 61, 223
operating temperature, 75, 172–173, 223
photovoltaic, 90
P-layer, 61, 223
polycrystalline, 76–77
polymer, 13f
ribbon-pulled, 76
silicon-based cells, 4
size of, 72–73
temperature effect on module output, 67–68,
73–74
thin-film, 75, 77–78, 224
vendors, 12
Solar energy fundamentals, 43–58
array shading, 52
compasses, use of, 50–51
distance spacing, 53–54
energy collection, 49–50
insolation, 45, 48–49, 224
instruments for measuring power and energy, 55
irradiance vs. irradiation, 45, 48–49, 67–68
movement of sun, 46–47
orientation, effects of changing, 51–52
overview, 43–44
position of sun, 47–48
radiation types and effects, 54–55
resource, 90
terminology, 45–46
time, 45
window, 46–47, 46f, 52–53
SolarPro analysis program, 53, 129
Solar radiation
availability of, 10
defined, 45
diffuse, 49, 54, 222
direct, 47–48, 54, 222
types and effects, 54–55
SOLDIM time-step analysis program, 52, 129
SolEm time-step analysis program, 129
SOLinvest calculation program, 128
Solstice, 45
Source circuits, 132
Square-wave inverters, 93
Stairway safety issues, 21
Standalone systems
described, 5, 10, 86–87, 224
electrical diagrams, 140
inverters and power panels, 97–99
power source labels, 149, 151
utility-interactive systems vs., 121–123
Standard operating conditions (SOC), 75, 223
Standard test conditions (STC), 74, 224
Strings
defined, 142, 224
module, 62–63, 63f
sizing of, 103
Strut-type channel raceways, 112
Sun
movement of, 46–47
position of, 47–48
Sunlight intensity, 73
Sun path diagramming, 47
Surface metal and nonmetal raceways, 112
Surge capacity, 99, 224
Surge protectors, 91
Switchgear, 34, 114, 224
System components, 85–119
balance of system, 110–116
overview, 85–86
principles of operation, 90–109
types of systems, 86–90
System grounding, 153, 224
System performance losses, 126–129
T
Tagging, 20, 224
Temperature
cell operating temperatures, 75, 172–173, 223
electrical components, 187–188
module output and, 67–68, 73–74
ratings for terminals and conductors, 148
Terminals, 35, 114–116, 148, 149, 224
Terminology, solar energy, 45–46
234 Index

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