1.1. Fundamental Concepts

A wave is a disturbance that transports energy from one point to another.

Electromagnetic waves are created by electrons in motion and consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. These waves can pass through a number of different material types.

The highest point of a wave is called a crest, and the lowest point is called a trough.

The distance between two consecutive crests or two consecutive troughs is called the wavelength.

One complete wavelength of oscillation of a wave is called a cycle.

The time taken by a wave to complete one cycle is called its period of oscillation.

The number of cycles in a second is called the frequency of the wave. The frequency of a wave is measured in hertz (abbreviated as Hz) ...

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