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Risk Analysis and Control for Industrial Processes - Gas, Oil and Chemicals

Book Description

Risk Analysis and Control for Industrial Processes - Gas, Oil and Chemicalsprovides an analysis of current approaches for preventing disasters, and gives readers an overview on which methods to adopt.

The book covers safety regulations, history and trends, industrial disasters, safety problems, safety tools, and capital and operational costs versus the benefits of safety, all supporting project decision processes. 

Tools covered include present day array of risk assessment, tools including HAZOP, LOPA and ORA, but also new approaches such as System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA), Blended HAZID, applications of Bayesian data analytics, Bayesian networks, and others. The text is supported by valuable examples to help the reader achieve a greater understanding on how to perform safety analysis, identify potential issues, and predict the likelihood they may appear.

  • Presents new methods on how to identify hazards of low probability/high consequence events
  • Contains information on how to develop and install safeguards against such events, with guidance on how to quantify risk and its uncertainty, and how to make economic and societal decisions about risk
  • Demonstrates key concepts through the use of examples and relevant case studies

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Foreword
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Chapter 1. Industrial Processing Systems, Their Products and Hazards
    1. Introductory remarks
    2. 1.1. General global outlook
    3. 1.2. Ammonium nitrate
    4. 1.3. Ammonia
    5. 1.4. Petrochemicals
    6. 1.5. Gasoline
    7. 1.6. Natural gas
    8. 1.7. Liquefied petroleum gas
    9. 1.8. Hydrogen
    10. 1.9. Dust explosions
    11. 1.10. Runaway reactions
    12. 1.11. Hazardous material spills in transportation accidents
    13. 1.12. Conclusion
  9. Chapter 2. Regulation to Safeguard against High-Consequence Industrial Events
    1. Summary
    2. 2.1. Some historical landmarks of main themes of regulation in the United States and European Union
    3. 2.2. Stationary source siting (US) or land use planning (EU)
    4. 2.3. Protection of workers and the public in the United States
    5. 2.4. European Union Directives and transposition in national law
    6. 2.5. Offshore and gas safety
    7. 2.6. Transport of hazardous materials
    8. 2.7. GHS, Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals
    9. 2.8. Future directions
    10. 2.9. Conclusion
  10. Chapter 3. Loss Prevention History and Developed Methods and Tools
    1. Summary
    2. 3.1. Brief history/evolution of loss prevention and process safety
    3. 3.2. Organization, leadership, management, safety management system, culture
    4. 3.3. Hazards, danger, safety, and risk
    5. 3.4. Accident investigation tools
    6. 3.5. Knowledge and tools: hazardous substance properties, system safety, process technology
    7. 3.6. Risk analysis tools, risk assessment
    8. 3.7. Evaluation of the state of risk analysis methodology
    9. 3.8. Conclusions
  11. Chapter 4. Trends in Society and Characteristics of Recent Industrial Disasters
    1. Summary
    2. 4.1. Business, industry, and energy trends
    3. 4.2. Societal trends
    4. 4.3. Two example accidents analyzed
    5. 4.4. Conclusions
  12. Chapter 5. Sociotechnical Systems, System Safety, Resilience Engineering, and Deeper Accident Analysis
    1. Summary
    2. 5.1. Sociotechnical systems and safety
    3. 5.2. System approach to risk control
    4. 5.3. Resilience engineering of sociotechnical systems
    5. 5.4. Conclusions
  13. Chapter 6. Human Factors, Safety Culture, Management Influences, Pressures, and More
    1. Summary
    2. 6.1. Human factors and occupational safety and health
    3. 6.2. Occupational risk modeling
    4. 6.3. Methods to assess human error, or rather human reliability
    5. 6.4. Human mechanisms for decision making and the ETTO principle
    6. 6.5. Safety culture, safety climate, safety attitude
    7. 6.6. Organizational hierarchy, management dilemmas and rules
    8. 6.7. Process safety performance indicators
    9. 6.8. Conclusions
  14. Chapter 7. New and Improved Process and Plant Risk and Resilience Analysis Tools
    1. Summary
    2. 7.1. Introduction
    3. 7.2. System-theoretic process analysis
    4. 7.3. Blended Hazid: HAZOP and FMEA in a system approach
    5. 7.4. Innovation and extension of classical risk assessment methods
    6. 7.5. Bayesian statistics and BNs
    7. 7.6. Uncertainty, fuzzy sets
    8. 7.7. Some applications of BN
    9. 7.8. Merging technical and human factor: agent-based modeling and Petri nets
    10. 7.9. Resilience engineering
    11. 7.10. Conclusions
  15. Chapter 8. Extended Process Control, Operator Situation Awareness, Alarm Management
    1. Summary
    2. 8.1. Problem analysis
    3. 8.2. Developments in control theory
    4. 8.3. Fault detection and diagnosis and fault-tolerant control
    5. 8.4. Trends in SCADA system infrastructure
    6. 8.5. Human factors in control, control room design, alarm management
    7. 8.6. Start-up, shut-down, and turn-around
    8. 8.7. Conclusions
  16. Chapter 9. Costs of Accidents, Costs of Safety, Risk-Based Economic Decision Making: Risk Management
    1. Summary
    2. 9.1. Costs of accidents
    3. 9.2. Costs of safety
    4. 9.3. Risk-based decision making
    5. 9.4. Safety risk management in context
    6. 9.5. Conclusions
  17. Chapter 10. Goal-oriented versus Prescriptive Regulation
    1. Summary
    2. 10.1. Background and literature sources
    3. 10.2. Discussion
    4. 10.3. Conclusion
  18. Chapter 11. The Important Role of Knowledge and Learning
    1. Summary
    2. 11.1. The need for structured knowledge
    3. 11.2. Knowledge sources and research
    4. 11.3. Knowledge management
    5. 11.4. Safety education and training
    6. 11.5. Conclusion
  19. Chapter 12. Risk, Risk Perception, Risk Communication, Risk Acceptance: Risk Governance
    1. Summary
    2. 12.1. Introduction, risk as concept, and rare events
    3. 12.2. Risk perception and risk communication
    4. 12.3. Public decision making, stakeholder participation
    5. 12.4. Risk management, risk acceptance criteria, ALARP
    6. 12.5. Conclusion
  20. Chapter 13. Conclusions: The Way Ahead
  21. Index