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Routing and Switching Essentials v6 Companion Guide

Book Description

Routing and Switching Essentials v6 Companion Guide


Routing and Switching Essentials v6 Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Routing and Switching Essentials course in the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA Routing and Switching curriculum.

This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers and switches in a small network.

The Companion Guide is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere to reinforce the material from the course and organize your time.

The book’s features help you focus on important concepts to succeed in this course:

·         Chapter Objectives–Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.

·         Key Terms–Refer to the lists of networking vocabulary introduced and highlighted in context in each chapter.

·         Glossary–Consult the comprehensive Glossary with more than 250 terms.

·         Summary of Activities and Labs–Maximize your study time with this complete list of all associated practice exercises at the end of each chapter.

·         Check Your Understanding–Evaluate your readiness with the end-ofchapter questions that match the style of questions you see in the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.

·         How To–Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to perform certain tasks.

·         Interactive Activities–Reinforce your understanding of topics with dozens of exercises from the online course identified throughout the book with this icon.

·         Packet Tracer Activities–Explore and visualize networking concepts using Packet Tracer exercises interspersed throughout the chapters and provided in the accompanying Labs & Study Guide book.

·         Videos–Watch the videos embedded within the online course.

·         Hands-on Labs–Work through all the course labs and additional Class Activities that are included in the course and published in the separate Labs & Study Guide.

This book is part of the Cisco Networking Academy Series from Cisco Press. Books in this series support and complement the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum.

Table of Contents

  1. About This E-Book
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. About the Contributing Authors
  5. Contents at a Glance
  6. Contents
  7. Icons Used in the This Book
  8. Command Syntax Conventions
  9. Introduction
  10. Chapter 1 Routing Concepts
    1. Objectives
    2. Key Terms
    3. Introduction (1.0.1.1)
    4. Router Initial Configuration (1.1)
      1. Router Functions (1.1.1)
        1. Characteristics of a Network (1.1.1.1)
        2. Why Routing? (1.1.1.2)
        3. Routers Are Computers (1.1.1.3)
        4. Routers Interconnect Networks (1.1.1.4)
        5. Routers Choose Best Paths (1.1.1.5)
        6. Packet-Forwarding Mechanisms (1.1.1.6)
      2. Connect Devices (1.1.2)
        1. Connect to a Network (1.1.2.1)
        2. Default Gateways (1.1.2.2)
        3. Document Network Addressing (1.1.2.3)
        4. Enable IP on a Host (1.1.2.4)
        5. Device LEDs (1.1.2.5)
        6. Console Access (1.1.2.6)
        7. Enable IP on a Switch (1.1.2.7)
      3. Router Basic Settings (1.1.3)
        1. Configure Basic Router Settings (1.1.3.1)
        2. Configure an IPv4 Router Interface (1.1.3.2)
        3. Configure an IPv6 Router Interface (1.1.3.3)
        4. Configure an IPv4 Loopback Interface (1.1.3.4)
        5. Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Networks (1.1.4)
          1. Verify Interface Settings (1.1.4.1)
          2. Verify IPv6 Interface Settings (1.1.4.2)
          3. Filter Show Command Output (1.1.4.3)
          4. Command History Feature (1.1.4.4)
    5. Routing Decisions (1.2)
      1. Switching Packets Between Networks (1.2.1)
        1. Router Switching Function (1.2.1.1)
        2. Send a Packet (1.2.1.2)
        3. Forward to the Next Hop (1.2.1.3)
        4. Packet Routing (1.2.1.4)
        5. Reach the Destination (1.2.1.5)
      2. Path Determination (1.2.2)
        1. Routing Decisions (1.2.2.1)
        2. Best Path (1.2.2.2)
        3. Load Balancing (1.2.2.3)
        4. Administrative Distance (1.2.2.4)
    6. Router Operation (1.3)
      1. Analyze the Routing Table (1.3.1)
        1. The Routing Table (1.3.1.1)
        2. Routing Table Sources (1.3.1.2)
        3. Remote Network Routing Entries (1.3.1.3)
      2. Directly Connected Routes (1.3.2)
        1. Directly Connected Interfaces (1.3.2.1)
        2. Directly Connected Routing Table Entries (1.3.2.2)
        3. Directly Connected Examples (1.3.2.3)
        4. Directly Connected IPv6 Example (1.3.2.4)
      3. Statically Learned Routes (1.3.3)
        1. Static Routes (1.3.3.1)
        2. Static Route Examples (1.3.3.2)
        3. Static IPv6 Route Examples (1.3.3.3)
      4. Dynamic Routing Protocols (1.3.4)
        1. Dynamic Routing (1.3.4.1)
        2. IPv4 Routing Protocols (1.3.4.2)
        3. IPv4 Dynamic Routing Examples (1.3.4.3)
        4. IPv6 Routing Protocols (1.3.4.4)
        5. IPv6 Dynamic Routing Examples (1.3.4.5)
    7. Summary (1.4)
    8. Practice
      1. Class Activities
      2. Labs
      3. Packet Tracer Activities
    9. Check Your Understanding Questions
  11. Chapter 2 Static Routing
    1. Objectives
    2. Key Terms
    3. Introduction (2.0.1.1)
    4. Implement Static Routes (2.1)
      1. Static Routing (2.1.1)
        1. Reach Remote Networks (2.1.1.1)
        2. Why Use Static Routing? (2.1.1.2)
        3. When to Use Static Routes (2.1.1.3)
      2. Types of Static Routes (2.1.2)
        1. Static Route Applications (2.1.2.1)
        2. Standard Static Route (2.1.2.2)
        3. Default Static Route (2.1.2.3)
        4. Summary Static Route (2.1.2.4)
        5. Floating Static Route (2.1.2.5)
    5. Configure Static and Default Routes (2.2)
      1. Configure IPv4 Static Routes (2.2.1)
        1. The ip route Command (2.2.1.1)
        2. Next-Hop Options (2.2.1.2)
        3. Configure a Next-Hop Static Route (2.2.1.3)
        4. Configure a Directly Connected Static Route (2.2.1.4)
        5. Configure a Fully Specified Static Route (2.2.1.5)
        6. Verify a Static Route (2.2.1.6)
      2. Configure IPv4 Default Routes (2.2.2)
        1. Default Static Route (2.2.2.1)
        2. Configure a Default Static Route (2.2.2.2)
        3. Verify a Default Static Route (2.2.2.3)
      3. Configure IPv6 Static Routes (2.2.3)
        1. The ipv6 route Command (2.2.3.1)
        2. Next-Hop Options (2.2.3.2)
        3. Configure a Next-Hop Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.3)
        4. Configure a Directly Connected Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.4)
        5. Configure a Fully Specified Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.5)
        6. Verify IPv6 Static Routes (2.2.3.6)
      4. Configure IPv6 Default Routes (2.2.4)
        1. Default Static IPv6 Route (2.2.4.1)
        2. Configure a Default Static IPv6 Route (2.2.4.2)
        3. Verify a Default Static Route (2.2.4.3)
      5. Configure Floating Static Routes (2.2.5)
        1. Floating Static Routes (2.2.5.1)
        2. Configure an IPv4 Floating Static Route (2.2.5.2)
        3. Test the IPv4 Floating Static Route (2.2.5.3)
        4. Configure an IPv6 Floating Static Route (2.2.5.4)
      6. Configure Static Host Routes (2.2.6)
        1. Automatically Installed Host Routes (2.2.6.1)
        2. Configure IPv4 and IPv6 Static Host Routes (2.2.6.2)
    6. Troubleshoot Static and Default Route (2.3)
      1. Packet Processing with Static Routes (2.3.1)
        1. Static Routes and Packet Forwarding (2.3.1.1)
      2. Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration (2.3.2)
        1. Troubleshoot a Missing Route (2.3.2.1)
        2. Solve a Connectivity Problem (2.3.2.2)
    7. Summary (2.4)
    8. Practice
      1. Class Activities
      2. Labs
      3. Packet Tracer Activities
    9. Check Your Understanding Questions
  12. Chapter 3 Dynamic Routing
    1. Objectives
    2. Key Terms
    3. Introduction (3.0.1.1)
    4. Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1)
      1. Dynamic Routing Protocol Overview (3.1.1)
        1. Dynamic Routing Protocol Evolution (3.1.1.1)
        2. Dynamic Routing Protocol Components (3.1.1.2)
      2. Dynamic Versus Static Routing (3.1.2)
        1. Static Routing Uses (3.1.2.1)
        2. Static Routing Advantages and Disadvantages (3.1.2.2)
        3. Dynamic Routing Protocols Uses (3.1.2.3)
        4. Dynamic Routing Advantages and Disadvantages (3.1.2.4)
    5. RIPv2 (3.2)
      1. Configuring the RIP Protocol (3.2.1)
        1. Router RIP Configuration Mode (3.2.1.1)
        2. Advertise Networks (3.2.1.2)
        3. Verify RIP Routing (3.2.1.3)
        4. Enable and Verify RIPv2 (3.2.1.4)
        5. Disable Auto Summarization (3.2.1.5)
        6. Configure Passive Interfaces (3.2.1.6)
        7. Propagate a Default Route (3.2.1.7)
    6. The Routing Table (3.3)
      1. Parts of an IPv4 Route Entry (3.3.1)
        1. Routing Table Entries (3.3.1.1)
        2. Directly Connected Entries (3.3.1.2)
        3. Remote Network Entries (3.3.1.3)
      2. Dynamically Learned IPv4 Routes (3.3.2)
        1. Routing Table Terms (3.3.2.1)
        2. Ultimate Route (3.3.2.2)
        3. Level 1 Route (3.3.2.3)
        4. Level 1 Parent Route (3.3.2.4)
        5. Level 2 Child Route (3.3.2.5)
      3. The IPv4 Route Lookup Process (3.3.3)
        1. Route Lookup Process (3.3.3.1)
        2. Best Route = Longest Match (3.3.3.2)
      4. Analyze an IPv6 Routing Table (3.3.4)
        1. IPv6 Routing Table Entries (3.3.4.1)
        2. Directly Connected Entries (3.3.4.2)
        3. Remote IPv6 Network Entries (3.3.4.3)
    7. Summary (3.4)
    8. Practice
      1. Class Activities
      2. Labs
      3. Packet Tracer Activities
    9. Check Your Understanding Questions
  13. Chapter 4 Switched Networks
    1. Objectives
    2. Key Terms
    3. Introduction (4.0.1.1)
    4. LAN Design (4.1)
      1. Converged Networks (4.1.1)
        1. Growing Complexity of Networks (4.1.1.1)
        2. Elements of a Converged Network (4.1.1.2)
        3. Cisco Borderless Networks (4.1.1.3)
        4. Hierarchy in the Borderless Switched Network (4.1.1.4)
        5. Access, Distribution, and Core Layers (4.1.1.5)
      2. Switched Networks (4.1.2)
        1. Role of Switched Networks (4.1.2.1)
        2. Form Factors (4.1.2.2)
    5. The Switched Environment (4.2)
      1. Frame Forwarding (4.2.1)
        1. Switching as a General Concept in Networking and Telecommunications (4.2.1.1)
        2. Dynamically Populating a Switch MAC Address Table (4.2.1.2)
        3. Switch Forwarding Methods (4.2.1.3)
        4. Store-and-Forward Switching (4.2.1.4)
        5. Cut-Through Switching (4.2.1.5)
      2. Switching Domains (4.2.2)
        1. Collision Domains (4.2.2.1)
        2. Broadcast Domains (4.2.2.2)
        3. Alleviating Network Congestion (4.2.2.3)
    6. Summary (4.3)
    7. Practice
      1. Class Activities
    8. Check Your Understanding Questions
  14. Chapter 5 Switch Configuration
    1. Objectives
    2. Key Terms
    3. Introduction (5.0.1.1)
    4. Basic Switch Configuration (5.1)
      1. Configure a Switch with Initial Settings (5.1.1)
        1. Switch Boot Sequence (5.1.1.1)
        2. Recovering from a System Crash (5.1.1.2)
        3. Switch LED Indicators (5.1.1.3)
        4. Preparing for Basic Switch Management (5.1.1.4)
        5. Configuring Basic Switch Management Access with IPv4 (5.1.1.5)
      2. Configure Switch Ports (5.1.2)
        1. Duplex Communication (5.1.2.1)
        2. Configure Switch Ports at the Physical Layer (5.1.2.2)
        3. Auto-MDIX (5.1.2.3)
        4. Verifying Switch Port Configuration (5.1.2.4)
        5. Network Access Layer Issues (5.1.2.5)
        6. Troubleshooting Network Access Layer Issues (5.1.2.6)
    5. Switch Security (5.2)
      1. Secure Remote Access (5.2.1)
        1. SSH Operation (5.2.1.1)
        2. Configuring SSH (5.2.1.2)
        3. Verifying SSH (5.2.1.3)
      2. Switch Port Security (5.2.2)
        1. Secure Unused Ports (5.2.2.1)
        2. Port Security: Operation (5.2.2.2)
        3. Port Security: Violation Modes (5.2.2.3)
        4. Port Security: Configuring (5.2.2.4)
        5. Port Security: Verifying (5.2.2.5)
        6. Ports in Error-Disabled State (5.2.2.6)
    6. Summary (5.3)
    7. Practice
      1. Class Activities
      2. Labs
      3. Packet Tracer Activities
    8. Check Your Understanding Questions
  15. Chapter 6 VLANs
    1. Objectives
    2. Key Terms
    3. Introduction (6.0.1.1)
    4. VLAN Segmentation (6.1)
      1. Overview of VLANs (6.1.1)
        1. VLAN Definitions (6.1.1.1)
        2. Benefits of VLANs (6.1.1.2)
        3. Types of VLANs (6.1.1.3)
        4. Voice VLANs (6.1.1.4)
      2. VLANs in a Multiswitched Environment (6.1.2)
        1. VLAN Trunks (6.1.2.1)
        2. Controlling Broadcast Domains with VLANs (6.1.2.2)
        3. Tagging Ethernet Frames for VLAN Identification (6.1.2.3)
        4. Native VLANs and 802.1Q Tagging (6.1.2.4)
        5. Voice VLAN Tagging (6.1.2.5)
    5. VLAN Implementations (6.2)
      1. VLAN Assignment (6.2.1)
        1. VLAN Ranges on Catalyst Switches (6.2.1.1)
        2. Creating a VLAN (6.2.1.2)
        3. Assigning Ports to VLANs (6.2.1.3)
        4. Changing VLAN Port Membership (6.2.1.4)
        5. Deleting VLANs (6.2.1.5)
        6. Verifying VLAN Information (6.2.1.6)
      2. VLAN Trunks (6.2.2)
        1. Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Trunk Links (6.2.2.1)
        2. Resetting the Trunk to Default State (6.2.2.2)
        3. Verifying Trunk Configuration (6.2.2.3)
      3. Troubleshoot VLANs and Trunks (6.2.3)
        1. IP Addressing Issues with VLAN (6.2.3.1)
        2. Missing VLANs (6.2.3.2)
        3. Introduction to Troubleshooting Trunks (6.2.3.3)
        4. Common Problems with Trunks (6.2.3.4)
        5. Incorrect Port Mode (6.2.3.5)
        6. Incorrect VLAN List (6.2.3.6)
    6. Inter-VLAN Routing Using Routers (6.3)
      1. Inter-VLAN Routing Operation (6.3.1)
        1. What Is Inter-VLAN Routing? (6.3.1.1)
        2. Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing (6.3.1.2)
        3. Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing (6.3.1.3)
      2. Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing (6.3.2)
        1. Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Preparation (6.3.2.1)
        2. Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Switch Configuration (6.3.2.2)
        3. Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Router Interface Configuration (6.3.2.3)
      3. Configure Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing (6.3.3)
        1. Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Preparation (6.3.3.1)
        2. Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Switch Configuration (6.3.3.2)
        3. Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Router Subinterface Configuration (6.3.3.3)
        4. Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Verifying Subinterfaces (6.3.3.4)
        5. Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Verifying Routing (6.3.3.5)
    7. Summary (6.4)
    8. Practice
      1. Class Activities
      2. Labs
      3. Packet Tracer Activities
    9. Check Your Understanding Questions
  16. Chapter 7 Access Control Lists
    1. Objectives
    2. Key Terms
    3. Introduction (7.0.1.1)
    4. ACL Operation (7.1)
      1. Purpose of ACLs (7.1.1)
        1. What Is an ACL? (7.1.1.1)
        2. Packet Filtering (7.1.1.2)
        3. ACL Operation (7.1.1.3)
      2. Wildcard Masks in ACLs (7.1.2)
        1. Introducing ACL Wildcard Masking (7.1.2.1)
        2. Wildcard Mask Examples (7.1.2.2)
        3. Calculating the Wildcard Mask (7.1.2.3)
        4. Wildcard Mask Keywords (7.1.2.4)
        5. Wildcard Mask Keyword Examples (7.1.2.5)
      3. Guidelines for ACL Creation (7.1.3)
        1. General Guidelines for Creating ACLs (7.1.3.1)
        2. ACL Best Practices (7.1.3.2)
      4. Guidelines for ACL Placement (7.1.4)
        1. Where to Place ACLs (7.1.4.1)
        2. Standard ACL Placement (7.1.4.2)
    5. Standard IPv4 ACLs (7.2)
      1. Configure Standard IPv4 ACLs (7.2.1)
        1. Numbered Standard IPv4 ACL Syntax (7.2.1.1)
        2. Applying Standard IPv4 ACLs to Interfaces (7.2.1.2)
        3. Numbered Standard IPv4 ACL Examples (7.2.1.3)
        4. Named Standard IPv4 ACL Syntax (7.2.1.4)
      2. Modify IPv4 ACLs (7.2.2)
        1. Method 1: Use a Text Editor (7.2.2.1)
        2. Method 2: Use Sequence Numbers (7.2.2.2)
        3. Editing Standard Named ACLs (7.2.2.3)
        4. Verifying ACLs (7.2.2.4)
        5. ACL Statistics (7.2.2.5)
      3. Securing VTY Ports with a Standard IPv4 ACL (7.2.3)
        1. The access-class Command (7.2.3.1)
        2. Verifying the VTY Port Is Secured (7.2.3.2)
    6. Troubleshoot ACLs (7.3)
      1. Processing Packets with ACLs (7.3.1)
        1. The Implicit Deny Any (7.3.1.1)
        2. The Order of ACEs in an ACL (7.3.1.2)
        3. Cisco IOS Reorders Standard ACLs (7.3.1.3)
        4. Routing Processes and ACLs (7.3.1.4)
      2. Common IPv4 Standard ACL Errors (7.3.2)
        1. Troubleshooting Standard IPv4 ACLs— Example 1 (7.3.2.1)
        2. Troubleshooting Standard IPv4 ACLs— Example 2 (7.3.2.2)
        3. Troubleshooting Standard IPv4 ACLs— Example 3 (7.3.2.3)
    7. Summary (7.4)
    8. Practice
      1. Class Activities
      2. Labs
      3. Packet Tracer Activities
    9. Check Your Understanding Questions
  17. Chapter 8 DHCP
    1. Objectives
    2. Key Terms
    3. Introduction (8.0.1.1)
    4. DHCPv4 (8.1)
      1. DHCPv4 Operation (8.1.1)
        1. Introducing DHCPv4 (8.1.1.1)
        2. DHCPv4 Operation (8.1.1.2)
        3. DHCPv4 Message Format (8.1.1.3)
        4. DHCPv4 Discover and Offer Messages (8.1.1.4)
      2. Configuring a Basic DHCPv4 Server (8.1.2)
        1. Configuring a Basic DHCPv4 Server (8.1.2.1)
        2. Verifying DHCPv4 (8.1.2.2)
        3. DHCPv4 Relay (8.1.2.3)
      3. Configure DHCPv4 Client (8.1.3)
        1. Configuring a Router as a DHCPv4 Client (8.1.3.1)
        2. Configuring a Wireless Router as a DHCPv4 Client (8.1.3.2)
      4. Troubleshoot DHCPv4 (8.1.4)
        1. Troubleshooting Tasks (8.1.4.1)
        2. Verify Router DHCPv4 Configuration (8.1.4.2)
        3. Debugging DHCPv4 (8.1.4.3)
    5. DHCPv6 (8.2)
      1. SLAAC and DHCPv6 (8.2.1)
        1. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) (8.2.1.1)
        2. SLAAC Operation (8.2.1.2)
        3. SLAAC and DHCPv6 (8.2.1.3)
        4. SLAAC Option (8.2.1.4)
        5. Stateless DHCPv6 Option (8.2.1.5)
        6. Stateful DHCPv6 Option (8.2.1.6)
        7. DHCPv6 Operations (8.2.1.7)
      2. Stateless DHCPv6 (8.2.2)
        1. Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server (8.2.2.1)
        2. Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Client (8.2.2.2)
        3. Verifying Stateless DHCPv6 (8.2.2.3)
      3. Stateful DHCPv6 Server (8.2.3)
        1. Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server (8.2.3.1)
        2. Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Client (8.2.3.2)
        3. Verifying Stateful DHCPv6 (8.2.3.3)
        4. Configuring a Router as a DHCPv6 Relay Agent (8.2.3.4)
      4. Troubleshoot DHCPv6 (8.2.4)
        1. Troubleshooting Tasks (8.2.4.1)
        2. Verify Router DHCPv6 Configuration (8.2.4.2)
        3. Debugging DHCPv6 (8.2.4.3)
    6. Summary (8.3)
    7. Practice
      1. Class Activities
      2. Labs
      3. Packet Tracer Activities
    8. Check Your Understanding Questions
  18. Chapter 9 NAT for IPv4
    1. Objectives
    2. Key Terms
    3. Introduction (9.0.1.1)
    4. NAT Operation (9.1)
      1. NAT Characteristics (9.1.1)
        1. IPv4 Private Address Space (9.1.1.1)
        2. What Is NAT? (9.1.1.2)
        3. NAT Terminology (9.1.1.3 & 9.1.1.4)
        4. How NAT Works (9.1.1.5)
      2. Types of NAT (9.1.2)
        1. Static NAT (9.1.2.1)
        2. Dynamic NAT (9.1.2.2)
        3. Port Address Translation (PAT) (9.1.2.3)
        4. Next Available Port (9.1.2.4)
        5. Comparing NAT and PAT (9.1.2.5)
      3. NAT Advantages (9.1.3)
        1. Advantages of NAT (9.1.3.1)
        2. Disadvantages of NAT (9.1.3.2)
    5. Configure NAT (9.2)
      1. Configuring Static NAT (9.2.1)
        1. Configure Static NAT (9.2.1.1)
        2. Analyzing Static NAT (9.2.1.2)
        3. Verifying Static NAT (9.2.1.3)
      2. Configure Dynamic NAT (9.2.2)
        1. Dynamic NAT Operation (9.2.2.1)
        2. Configuring Dynamic NAT (9.2.2.2)
        3. Analyzing Dynamic NAT (9.2.2.3)
        4. Verifying Dynamic NAT (9.2.2.4)
      3. Configure PAT (9.2.3)
        1. Configuring PAT: Address Pool (9.2.3.1)
        2. Configuring PAT: Single Address (9.2.3.2)
        3. Analyzing PAT (9.2.3.3)
        4. Verifying PAT (9.2.3.4)
      4. Configure Port Forwarding (9.2.4)
        1. Port Forwarding (9.2.4.1)
        2. Wireless Router Example (9.2.4.2)
        3. Configuring Port Forwarding with IOS (9.2.4.3)
      5. NAT and IPv6 (9.2.5)
        1. NAT for IPv6? (9.2.5.1)
        2. IPv6 Unique Local Addresses (9.2.5.2)
        3. NAT for IPv6 (9.2.5.3)
    6. Troubleshoot NAT (9.3)
      1. NAT Troubleshooting Commands (9.3.1)
        1. The show ip nat Commands (9.3.1.1)
        2. The debug ip nat Command (9.3.1.2)
        3. NAT Troubleshooting Scenario (9.3.1.3)
    7. Summary (9.4)
    8. Practice
      1. Class Activities
      2. Labs
      3. Packet Tracer Activities
    9. Check Your Understanding Questions
  19. Chapter 10 Device Discovery, Management, and Maintenance
    1. Objectives
    2. Key Terms
    3. Introduction (10.0.0.1)
    4. Device Discovery (10.1)
      1. Device Discovery with CDP (10.1.1)
        1. CDP Overview (10.1.1.1)
        2. Configure and Verify CDP (10.1.1.2)
        3. Discover Devices Using CDP (10.1.1.3)
      2. Device Discovery with LLDP (10.1.2)
        1. LLDP Overview (10.1.2.1)
        2. Configure and Verify LLDP (10.1.2.2)
        3. Discover Devices Using LLDP (10.1.2.3)
    5. Device Management (10.2)
      1. NTP (10.2.1)
        1. Setting the System Clock (10.2.1.1)
        2. NTP Operation (10.2.1.2)
        3. Configure and Verify NTP (10.2.1.3)
      2. Syslog Operation (10.2.2)
        1. Introduction to Syslog (10.2.2.1)
        2. Syslog Operation (10.2.2.2)
        3. Syslog Message Format (10.2.2.3)
        4. Service Timestamp (10.2.2.4)
      3. Syslog Configuration (10.2.3)
        1. Syslog Server (10.2.3.1)
        2. Default Logging (10.2.3.2)
        3. Router and Switch Commands for Syslog Clients (10.2.3.3)
        4. Verifying Syslog (10.2.3.4)
    6. Device Maintenance (10.3)
      1. Router and Switch File Maintenance (10.3.1)
        1. Router File Systems (10.3.1.1)
        2. Switch File Systems (10.3.1.2)
        3. Backing Up and Restoring Using Text Files (10.3.1.3)
        4. Backing Up and Restoring TFTP (10.3.1.4)
        5. Using USB Ports on a Cisco Router (10.3.1.5)
        6. Backing Up and Restoring Using a USB (10.3.1.6)
        7. Password Recovery (10.3.1.7)
      2. IOS System Files (10.3.2)
        1. IOS 15 System Image Packaging (10.3.2.1)
        2. IOS Image Filenames (10.3.2.2)
      3. IOS Image Management (10.3.3)
        1. TFTP Servers as a Backup Location (10.3.3.1)
        2. Steps to Back Up IOS Image to TFTP Server (10.3.3.2)
        3. Steps to Copy an IOS Image to a Device (10.3.3.3)
        4. The boot system Command (10.3.3.4)
      4. Software Licensing (10.3.4)
        1. Licensing Overview (10.3.4.1)
        2. Licensing Process (10.3.4.2)
        3. Step 1. Purchase the Software Package or Feature to Install (10.3.4.3)
        4. Step 2. Obtain a License (10.3.4.4)
        5. Step 3. Install the License (10.3.4.5)
      5. License Verification and Management (10.3.5)
        1. License Verification (10.3.5.1)
        2. Activate an Evaluation Right-to-Use License (10.3.5.2)
        3. Back Up the License (10.3.5.3)
        4. Uninstall the License (10.3.5.4)
    7. Summary (10.4)
    8. Practice
      1. Labs
      2. Packet Tracer Activities
    9. Check Your Understanding Questions
  20. Appendix A Answers to the “Check Your Understanding” Questions
  21. Glossary
  22. Index
  23. Code Snippets