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Safety Design for Space Systems

Book Description

Progress in space safety lies in the acceptance of safety design and engineering as an integral part of the design and implementation process for new space systems. Safety must be seen as the principle design driver of utmost importance from the outset of the design process, which is only achieved through a culture change that moves all stakeholders toward front-end loaded safety concepts. This approach entails a common understanding and mastering of basic principles of safety design for space systems at all levels of the program organisation.

Fully supported by the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS), written by the leading figures in the industry, with frontline experience from projects ranging from the Apollo missions, Skylab, the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station, this book provides a comprehensive reference for aerospace engineers in industry.

It addresses each of the key elements that impact on space systems safety, including: the space environment (natural and induced); human physiology in space; human rating factors; emergency capabilities; launch propellants and oxidizer systems; life support systems; battery and fuel cell safety; nuclear power generators (NPG) safety; habitat activities; fire protection; safety-critical software development; collision avoidance systems design; operations and on-orbit maintenance.

* The only comprehensive space systems safety reference, its must-have status within space agencies and suppliers, technical and aerospace libraries is practically guaranteed
* Written by the leading figures in the industry from NASA, ESA, JAXA, (et cetera), with frontline experience from projects ranging from the Apollo missions, Skylab, the Space Shuttle, small and large satellite systems, and the International Space Station.
* Superb quality information for engineers, programme managers, suppliers and aerospace technologists; fully supported by the IAASS (International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety)

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Introduction
  6. About the Editors
  7. About the Contributors
  8. Chapter 1. Introduction to Space Safety
  9. 1.1. Nasa and Safety
  10. 1.2. Definition of Safety and Risk
  11. 1.3. Managing Safety and Risk
  12. 1.4. The Book
  13. Chapter 2. The Space Environment
  14. Chapter 3. Overview of Bioastronautics
  15. 3.1. Space Physiology
  16. 3.2. Short and Long Duration Mission Effects
  17. 3.3. Health Maintenance
  18. 3.4. Crew Survival
  19. 3.5. Conclusion
  20. Chapter 4. Basic Principles of Space Safety
  21. 4.1. The Cause of Accidents
  22. 4.2. Principles and Methods
  23. 4.3. The Safety Review Process
  24. Chapter 5. Human Rating Concepts
  25. 5.1. Human Rating Defined
  26. 5.2. Human Rating Requirements and Approaches
  27. Chapter 6. Life Support Systems Safety
  28. 6.1. Atmospheric Conditioning and Control
  29. 6.2. Trace Contaminant Control
  30. 6.3. Assessment of Water Quality in the Spacecraft Environment: Mitigating Health and Safety Concerns
  31. 6.4. Waste Management
  32. 6.5. Summary of Life Support Systems
  33. Chapter 7. Emergency Systems
  34. 7.1. Space Rescue
  35. 7.2. Personal Protective Equipment
  36. Chapter 8. Collision Avoidance Systems
  37. 8.1. Docking Systems and Operations
  38. 8.2. Descent and Landing Systems
  39. Chapter 9. Robotic Systems Safety
  40. 9.1. Generic Robotic Systems
  41. 9.2. Space Robotics Overview
  42. 9.3. Identification of Hazards and their Causes
  43. 9.4. Hazard Mitigation in Design
  44. 9.5. Hazard Mitigation through Training
  45. 9.6. Hazard Mitigation for Operations
  46. 9.7. Case Study: Understanding Canadarm2 and Space Safety
  47. 9.8. Summary
  48. Chapter 10. Meteoroid and Debris Protection
  49. 10.1. Risk Control Measures
  50. 10.2. Emergency Repair Considerations for Spacecraft Pressure Wall Damage
  51. Chapter 11. Noise Control Design
  52. 11.1. Introduction
  53. 11.2. Noise Control Plan
  54. 11.3. Noise Control Design Applications
  55. 11.4. Conclusions and Recommendations
  56. Chapter 12. Materials Safety
  57. 12.1. Toxic Offgassing
  58. 12.2. Stress-Corrosion Cracking
  59. 12.3. Conclusions
  60. Chapter 13. Oxygen Systems Safety
  61. 13.1. Oxygen Pressure System Design
  62. 13.2. Oxygen Generators
  63. Chapter 14. Avionics Safety
  64. Chapter 15. Software System Safety
  65. 15.1. Introduction
  66. 15.2. The Software Safety Problem
  67. 15.3. Current Practice
  68. 15.4. Best Practice
  69. 15.5. Summary
  70. Chapter 16. Battery Safety
  71. 16.1. Introduction
  72. 16.2. General Design And Safety Guidelines
  73. 16.3. Battery Types
  74. 16.4. Battery Models
  75. 16.5. Hazard and Toxicity Categorization
  76. 16.6. Battery Chemistry
  77. 16.7. Storage, Transportation, and Handling
  78. Chapter 17. Mechanical Systems Safety
  79. Chapter 18. Containment of Hazardous Materials
  80. 18.1. Toxic Materials
  81. 18.2. Biohazardous Materials
  82. 18.3. Shatterable Materials
  83. 18.4. Containment Design Approach
  84. 18.5. Containment Design Methods
  85. 18.6. Safety Controls
  86. 18.7. Safety Verifications
  87. 18.8. Conclusions
  88. Chapter 19. Failure Tolerance Design
  89. 19.1. Safe
  90. 19.2. Hazard
  91. 19.3. Hazardous Functions
  92. 19.4. Design for Minimum Risk
  93. 19.5. Conclusions
  94. Chapter 20. Propellant Systems Safety
  95. 20.1. Solid Propellant Propulsion Systems Safety
  96. 20.2. Liquid Propellant Propulsion Systems Safety
  97. 20.3. Hypergolic Propellants
  98. 20.4. Propellant Fire
  99. Chapter 21. Pyrotechnic Safety
  100. 21.1. Pyrotechnic Devices
  101. 21.2. Electroexplosive Devices
  102. Chapter 22. Extravehicular Activity Safety
  103. 22.1. Extravehicular Activity Environment
  104. 22.2. Suit Hazards
  105. 22.3. Crew Hazards
  106. 22.4. Conclusions
  107. Chapter 23. Emergency, Caution, and Warning System
  108. 23.1. System Overview
  109. 23.2. Historic Nasa Emergency, Caution, and Warning Systems
  110. 23.3. Emergency, Caution, and Warning System Measures
  111. 23.4. Failure Isolation and Recovery
  112. Chapter 24. Laser Safety
  113. 24.1. Background
  114. 24.2. Laser Characteristics
  115. 24.3. Laser Standards
  116. 24.4. Lasers Used in Space
  117. 24.5. Design Considerations for Laser Safety
  118. 24.6. Conclusions
  119. Chapter 25. Crew Training Safety
  120. 25.1. Training the Crew for Safety
  121. 25.2. Safety During Training
  122. 25.3. Training Development and Validation Process
  123. 25.4. Conclusions
  124. Chapter 26. Safety Considerations for the Ground Environment
  125. 26.1. A Word about Ground Support Equipment
  126. 26.2. Documentation and Reviews
  127. 26.3. Roles and Responsibilities
  128. 26.4. Contingency Planning
  129. 26.5. Failure Tolerance
  130. 26.6. Training
  131. 26.7. Hazardous Operations
  132. 26.8. Tools
  133. 26.9. Human Factors
  134. 26.10. Biological Systems and Materials
  135. 26.11. Electrical
  136. 26.12. Radiation
  137. 26.13. Pressure Systems
  138. 26.14. Ordinance
  139. 26.15. Mechanical and Electromechanical Devices
  140. 26.16. Propellants
  141. 26.17. Cryogenics
  142. 26.18. Oxygen
  143. 26.19. Ground Handling
  144. 26.20. Software Safety
  145. 26.21. Summary
  146. Chapter 27. Fire Safety
  147. 27.1. Characteristics of Fire in Space
  148. 27.2. Design for Fire Prevention
  149. 27.3. Spacecraft Fire Detection
  150. 27.4. Spacecraft Fire Suppression
  151. Chapter 28. Safe Without Services Design
  152. Chapter 29. Probabilistic Risk Assessment with Emphasis on Design
  153. 29.1. Basic Elements of Probabilistic Risk Assessment
  154. 29.2. Construction of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Design Evaluations
  155. 29.3. Relative Risk Evaluations
  156. 29.4. Evaluations of the Relative Risks of Alternative Designs
  157. Index