Cosmic rays have been studied for a long time, and many references describe their characteristics (
Colgate et al., 1963
). During the last five decades, the study of cosmic rays has been included in an emerging field of nuclear science that perhaps most descriptively is called
. Cosmic rays, which have extraordinary penetrating power and fall continuously upon the Earth from somewhere beyond, can be the major radiation hazard in crewed space missions. Yet, as scientists and engineers strive to implement the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, cosmic rays are only one of many challenges that must be overcome to ensure ...