Assessment of scholarly outcomes is based on certain bibliometric indexes that indicate the quality of the work. It is found that Chinese researchers have made tremendous contributions to scholarship regarding the number of their publications in international journals. However, these numerous publications are not cited adequately because of their quality (?) or language (?). It is indeed true that English is an obstacle for the Chinese in the process of writing scientific articles. A performance difference between scientists and social scientists is also discovered. In addition, this chapter highlights the achievements that the Chinese have made in scholarly publishing and patent creation.