Second Language Research

Book description

Specifically targeted towards the needs of a second language research audience, Second Language Research: Methodology and Design addresses basic issues related to research design, providing step-by-step instructions for how to carry out studies. This up-to-date text includes chapters that cover identifying research problems and questions; selecting elicitation measures; dealing with ethical issues related to data gathering; validity and reliability in research; research in second and foreign language classroom contexts; data description and coding; and data analysis. Also included is a chapter on the much needed and rarely addressed topic of writing up SLA research, giving concrete suggestions about preparing for publication. Principles of both qualitative and quantitative research are discussed in the context of design issues. Throughout the book, examples from applied linguistics, second language acquisition, and TESOL are provided. Helpful discussion and data-based skill-building exercises at the end of each chapter promote better understanding of the principles discussed. A glossary outlines the key terms in second language research. Second Language Research: Methodology and Design is an ideal textbook for introductory and advanced classes in second language research methods, as well as classes in related areas, for example, TESOL research methods.

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. 1 Introduction to Research
    1. 1.1. Different Types of Research
    2. 1.2. What is a Research Report?
      1. 1.2.1. Title Page
      2. 1.2.2. Abstract
      3. 1.2.3. Introduction
      4. 1.2.4. Methods Section
      5. 1.2.5. Results
      6. 1.2.6. Discussion/Conclusion
      7. 1.2.7. Notes
      8. 1.2.8. References
      9. 1.2.9. Appendixes
    3. 1.3. Identifying Research Questions
      1. 1.3.1. Feasibility
      2. 1.3.2. Research Questions and Hypotheses
      3. 1.3.3. Replication
    4. 1.4. Conclusion
    5. Follow-Up Questions and Activities
  8. 2 Issues Related to Data Gathering
    1. 2.1. Ethical Issues In Research Involving Human Subjects
      1. 2.1.1. Obtaining Informed Consent From Second Language Learners
      2. 2.1.2. History of Institutional Review of Human Subjects Research, Compliance, and Problem Solving
    2. 2.2. Conclusion
    3. Follow-Up Questions and Activities
  9. 3 Common Data Collection Measures
    1. 3.1. Pilot Testing
    2. 3.2. The Significance of Data Collection Measures
      1. 3.2.1. Syntax: Japanese Passives
      2. 3.2.2. Interaction Research
      3. 3.2.3. Pragmatics Research
    3. 3.3. Researching Formal Models of Language
      1. 3.3.1. Acceptability Judgments
      2. 3.3.2. Elicited Imitation
      3. 3.3.3. Magnitude Estimation
      4. 3.3.4. Truth-Value Judgments and Other Interpretation Tasks
      5. 3.3.5. Sentence Matching
    4. 3.4. Processing Research
      1. 3.4.1. Sentence Interpretation
      2. 3.4.2. Reaction Time
      3. 3.4.3. Moving Window
    5. 3.5. Interaction-Based Research
      1. 3.5.1. Picture Description Tasks
      2. 3.5.2. Spot the Difference
      3. 3.5.3. Jigsaw Tasks
      4. 3.5.4. Consensus Tasks
      5. 3.5.5. Consciousness-Raising Tasks
      6. 3.5.6. Computer-Mediated Research
    6. 3.6. Strategies and Cognitive Processes
      1. 3.6.1. Observations
      2. 3.6.2. Introspective Measures
    7. 3.7. Sociolinguistic/Pragmatics-Based Research
      1. 3.7.1. Naturalistic Settings
      2. 3.7.2. Elicited Narratives
      3. 3.7.3. Discourse Completion Test (DCT)
      4. 3.7.4. Role Play
      5. 3.7.5. Video Playback for Interpretation
    8. 3.8. Questionnaires and Surveys
    9. 3.9. Existing Databases
      1. 3.9.1. CHILDES
      2. 3.9.2. Other Corpora
    10. 3.10. Conclusion
    11. Follow-Up Questions and Activities
  10. 4 Research Variables, Validity, and Reliability
    1. 4.1. Introduction
    2. 4.2. Hypotheses
    3. 4.3. Variable Types
      1. 4.3.1. Independent and Dependent Variables
      2. 4.3.2. Moderator Variables
      3. 4.3.3. Intervening Variables
      4. 4.3.4. Control Variables
    4. 4.4. Operationalization
    5. 4.5. Measuring Variables: Scales of Measurement
    6. 4.6. Validity
      1. 4.6.1. Content Validity
      2. 4.6.2. Face Validity
      3. 4.6.3. Construct Validity
      4. 4.6.4. Criterion-Related Validity
      5. 4.6.5. Predictive Validity
      6. 4.6.6. Internal Validity
      7. 4.6.7. External Validity
    7. 4.7. Reliability
      1. 4.7.1. Rater Reliability
      2. 4.7.2. Instrument Reliability
    8. 4.8. Conclusion
    9. Follow-Up Questions and Activities
  11. 5 Designing a Quantitative Study
    1. 5.1. Introduction
    2. 5.2. Research Materials
    3. 5.3. Intact Classes
    4. 5.4. Counterbalancing
    5. 5.5. Research Design Types
      1. 5.5.1. Correlational (Associational) Research
      2. 5.5.2. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research
      3. 5.5.3. Measuring the Effect of Treatment
      4. 5.5.4. Repeated Measures Design
      5. 5.5.5. Factorial Design
      6. 5.5.6. Time-Series Design
      7. 5.5.7. One-Shot Designs
    6. 5.6. Finalizing Your Project
    7. 5.7. Conclusion
    8. Follow-Up Questions and Activities
  12. 6 Qualitative Research
    1. 6.1. Defining Qualitative Research
    2. 6.2. Gathering Qualitative Data
      1. 6.2.1. Ethnographies
      2. 6.2.2. Case Studies
      3. 6.2.3. Interviews
      4. 6.2.4. Observations
      5. 6.2.5. Diaries/Journals
    3. 6.3. Analyzing Qualitative Data
      1. 6.3.1. Credibility, Transferability, Confirmability and Dependability
      2. 6.3.2. Triangulation
      3. 6.3.3. The Role of Quantification in Qualitative Research
    4. 6.4. Conclusion
    5. Follow-Up Questions and Activities
  13. 7 Classroom Research
    1. 7.1. Classroom Research Contexts
    2. 7.2. Common Techniques for Data Collection in Classroom Research
      1. 7.2.1. Observations
    3. 7.3. Introspective Methods in Classroom Research
      1. 7.3.1. Uptake Sheets
      2. 7.3.2. Stimulated Recall
      3. 7.3.3. Diary Research in Classroom Contexts
    4. 7.4. Practical Considerations in Classroom Research
      1. 7.4.1. Logistical Issues to Consider When Carrying Out Classroom Research
      2. 7.4.2. Problematics
    5. 7.5. Purposes and Types of Research Conducted in Classroom Settings
      1. 7.5.1. The Relationship Between Instruction and Learning in Second Language Classrooms
      2. 7.5.2. Action Research
    6. 7.6. Conclusion
    7. Follow-Up Questions and Activities
  14. 8 Coding
    1. 8.1. Preparing Data for Coding
      1. 8.1.1. Transcribing Oral Data
    2. 8.2. Data Coding
      1. 8.2.1. Coding Nominal Data
      2. 8.2.2. Coding Ordinal Data
      3. 8.2.3. Coding Interval Data
    3. 8.3. Coding Systems
      1. 8.3.1. Common Coding Systems and Categories
      2. 8.3.2. Custom-Made Coding Systems
      3. 8.3.3. Coding Qualitative Data
    4. 8.4. Interrater Reliability
      1. 8.4.1. Calculating Interrater Reliability
    5. 8.5. The Mechanics of Coding
      1. 8.5.1. How Much to Code?
      2. 8.5.2. When to Make Coding Decisions?
    6. 8.6. Conclusion
    7. Follow-Up Questions and Activities
  15. 9 Analyzing Quantitative Data
    1. 9.1. Introduction
    2. 9.2. Descriptive Statistics
      1. 9.2.1. Measures of Frequency
      2. 9.2.2. Measures of Central Tendency
      3. 9.2.3. Measures of Dispersion
    3. 9.3. Normal Distribution
    4. 9.4. Standard Scores
    5. 9.5. Probability
    6. 9.6. Inferential Statistics
      1. 9.6.1. Prerequisites
      2. 9.6.2. Parametric Versus Nonparametric Statistics
      3. 9.6.3. Parametric Statistics
      4. 9.6.4. Nonparametric Tests
    7. 9.7. Statistical Tables
    8. 9.8. Strength of Association
    9. 9.9. Eta2 and Omega2
    10. 9.10. Effect Size
    11. 9.11. Meta-Analyses
    12. 9.12. Correlation
      1. 9.12.1. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation
      2. 9.12.2. Spearman Rho/Kendall Tau
      3. 9.12.3. Factor Analysis
    13. 9.13. Statistical Packages
      1. 9.13.1. SPSS
      2. 9.13.2. VARBRUL
    14. 9.14. Conclusion
    15. Follow-Up Questions and Activities
  16. 10 Concluding and Reporting Research
    1. 10.1. The Importance of Reporting Research
    2. 10.2. The Final Stages in Reporting Quantitative Research
      1. 10.2.1. The Discussion
      2. 10.2.2. Limitations, Future Research, and Conclusion Sections
    3. 10.3. The Final Stages in Reporting Qualitative Research
    4. 10.4. Reporting Combined Method (Quantitative and Qualitative) Research
    5. 10.5. Checklist for Completing Reports of Research
      1. 10.5.1. The Research Problem and Questions
      2. 10.5.2. The Research Hypotheses
      3. 10.5.3. The Audience
      4. 10.5.4. The Abstract
      5. 10.5.5. The Literature Review
      6. 10.5.6. The Design of the Study
      7. 10.5.7. Logistics
      8. 10.5.8. Participants
      9. 10.5.9. Data Gathering
      10. 10.5.10. Data Analysis
      11. 10.5.11. Conclusions
      12. 10.5.12. References
      13. 10.5.13. Footnotes, Endnotes, Figures, and Tables
      14. 10.5.14. Author’s Note/Acknowledgments
      15. 10.5.15. Postresearch Concerns
      16. 10.5.16. Final Touches and Formatting
    6. 10.6. Conclusion
    7. Follow-Up Questions and Activities
  17. Appendix A: Sample Short Form Written Consent Document for Subjects who do not Speak English
  18. Appendix B: Sample Consent Form for a Study in a Foreign Language Context
  19. Appendix C: Sample Consent Form for a Classroom Study
  20. Appendix D–G: Sample Institutional Review Board Application: Georgetown University, Forms 1–4
  21. Appendix H: Sample Transcription Conventions: “Jeffersonian” Transcription Conventions
  22. Appendix I: Sample Transcription Conventions for the L2 Classroom
  23. Appendix J: Commonly-Used Formulæ
  24. Glossary
  25. References
  26. Author Index
  27. Subject Index

Product information

  • Title: Second Language Research
  • Author(s): Alison Mackey, Susan M. Gass
  • Release date: June 2013
  • Publisher(s): Routledge
  • ISBN: 9781135600471