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Security Automation Essentials: Streamlined Enterprise Security Management & Monitoring with SCAP

Book Description

The definitive guide to information security automation technologies

Security Automation Essentials: Streamlined Enterprise Security Management & Monitoring with SCAP provides IT security managers in both government agencies and private organizations with full details on the capabilities of SCAP (Security Content Automation Protocol) technologies. SCAP reduces dozens of individual security-related tasks (checking that patches are up to date) to simple, streamlined, and automated tasks that produce standardized results. It aids in the integration and ease of use of multiple, non-interoperable products and platforms.

This book is written by a team of subject matter experts from G2, a leading computer security company working closely with the SCAP standards agency (NIST), government clients, including the Department of Defense, NSA, Drug Enforcement Administration, and FDA, and private clients such as American Express, Monster.com, and Black & Decker. The book delivers a complete and accessible overview of SCAP, including enumerations of common platforms, vulnerabilities, and configurations. SCAP's open-standard, SML-based language is discussed, along with the Open Vulnerability and Assessment Language (OVAL), and how it communicates.

Security Automation Essentials: Streamlined Enterprise Security Management & Monitoring with SCAP

• Features thorough, accessible explanations for security professionals of all levels about what SCAP is and what it can do to automate and streamline network security practices

• Helps you immediately take advantage of SCAP support in existing products, and includes tips for purchasing new security products and services that can interoperate with existing enterprise systems

• Includes case studies of SCAP streamlining in practice

• Supplemented by an author website with up-to-date resources and announcements on the latest developments in the field

• Provides a solid foundation for studying particular SCAP components in more detail and customizing/programming SCAP content and tools

Coverage includes:

What Is SCAP; SCAP Languages; SCAP Enumerations; SCAP Vulnerability Measurement; Putting the Pieces Together; Using SCAP In Your Enterprise; Emerging SCAP Technologies

Table of Contents

  1. Cover 
  2. About the Author
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents at a Glance
  5. Contents 
  6. Foreword
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Introduction
  9. Part I Security Automation Essentials
    1. Chapter 1 The Security Management Problem
      1. Security Management Challenges
        1. The Number and Variety of Systems and Software to Secure
        2. The Need for Continuous Security Management
        3. The Need for a Comprehensive Picture of Enterprise Security
        4. The Need for Standardization in Security
        5. Security Requirements from Regulations and Other Sources
      2. The Security Automation Solution
      3. Security Automation Basics
        1. Knowledge About Individual Security Elements
        2. Using Checklists to Achieve Compliance
      4. The Evolution of Security Automation Technologies and Standards
        1. Enumeration Standards
        2. Language Standards
        3. Risk Measurement Standards
    2. Chapter 2 What Is SCAP?
      1. The History of SCAP
      2. The Parts of SCAP
        1. Component Specifications
        2. How the SCAP Component Specifications Fit Together
      3. The SCAP Protocol
        1. SCAP Content
      4. The Value of SCAP
        1. Inventorying Installed Software
        2. Identifying Security Issues
        3. Monitoring the Security State
        4. Security Measures and Metrics
        5. Quantifying Risk
        6. Fostering Common Terminology
  10. Part II Using SCAP
    1. Chapter 3 SCAP Checklist and Check Languages
      1. Extensible Checklist Configuration Description Format
        1. Data Model and Syntax
        2. Benchmark
        3. Items
        4. Profile
        5. TestResult
      2. Open Vulnerability and Assessment Language
        1. Data Model
        2. Generator
        3. Definition
        4. Test
        5. Object
        6. State
        7. Variables
        8. OVAL Results
      3. Open Checklist Interactive Language
        1. OCIL Data Model
        2. Questions
        3. Question_Test_Action Elements
        4. Questionnaires
        5. Putting It All Together
    2. Chapter 4 Asset Management
      1. Asset Identification
        1. Literal and Synthetic Identifiers
        2. Correlation
        3. AI Elements
        4. Helper Elements
      2. Asset Reporting Format
        1. Relationship Terms
        2. ARF Example
      3. Assessment Summary Results
        1. System-Ident Model
    3. Chapter 5 Enumerations
      1. Automation Enumerations and Their Purposes
      2. Enumerations Included in SCAP
      3. Common Configuration Enumeration
        1. CCE History
        2. The Purpose of CCE
        3. CCE Entries
        4. CCE Submission Process
        5. CCE and the National Vulnerability Database
      4. Common Platform Enumeration
        1. The New CPE 2.3 Stack
      5. Common Vulnerability and Exposures
        1. The Birth of CVE
        2. CVE Editorial Board
        3. CVE Identifiers
        4. Common Vulnerability Scoring System
      6. Other Related Enumerations and Expressions
        1. Common Weakness Enumeration
        2. Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and Classification
        3. Common Malware Enumeration
        4. Common Event Expression
        5. Distributed Audit Service
        6. Common Remediation Enumeration
    4. Chapter 6 SCAP Vulnerability Measurement
      1. Common Vulnerability Scoring System
        1. CVSS History
        2. CVSS Use Cases
      2. Vulnerability Characteristics
      3. CVSS Scoring
        1. Base Scoring
        2. Temporal Scores
        3. Environmental Scores
        4. Base, Temporal, Environmental Vectors
        5. CVSS Equations
        6. Your Mileage May Vary
      4. Common Vulnerability Reporting Framework (CVRF)
      5. Common Misuse Scoring System (CMSS)
      6. Common Configuration Scoring System
      7. Vulnerability Management in the Enterprise
  11. Part III Putting It All Together
    1. Chapter 7 Building Automated Security Content
      1. Working with Files
        1. XML Editors
      2. Content Maintenance Tools
        1. Enhanced SCAP Editor (eSCAPe)
        2. The eSCAPe Wizards
        3. Opening and Navigating an SCAP Data Stream
        4. Example: Creating Malware SCAP Content
        5. Example: Creating Content to Check for Malicious File
        6. Using the Regex Validator Tool
        7. Using the Merge OVAL Documents Tool
      3. Some Useful Tips for Creating Content
        1. Explain Yourself
        2. Make Sure It Works
        3. Version Your Artifacts
        4. Reuse of Artifacts
        5. Content Correctness
        6. Least Version Principle
        7. Design for People
        8. Follow the Rules of the Road
        9. Minimize Extension Depth
        10. Granularity
        11. Customization
        12. Performance
        13. Regular Expressions
    2. Chapter 8 Putting Security Automation to Work in the Enterprise
      1. How Organizations Are Using Security Automation
        1. Automated Hardware and Software Inventory
        2. Security Configuration Management (SCM)
        3. OpenSCAP Security Automation Software in Linux Distributions
        4. Use of Security Automation to Track Management and Operational Security
        5. Security Automation to Discover Malicious Software
        6. Continuous Monitoring by Integrating Security Systems
        7. Device Health Monitoring
      2. Building a Healthy and Resilient Cyber Ecosystem
    3. Chapter 9 Conclusion
      1. The Road Ahead
  12. Appendix XCCDF, OVAL, OCIL, and Supporting Enumerations Usage
  13. Index