4.1 Internal Balances

In Chapter 3 we introduced column distillation and developed the external balance equations. In this chapter we start looking inside the column. For binary systems the number of stages required for the separation can conveniently be obtained by use of stage-by-stage balances. We start at the top of the column and write the balances and equilibrium relationship for the first stage, and then once we have determined the unknown variables for the first stage we write balances for the second stage. Utilizing the variables just calculated we can again calculate the unknowns. We can now proceed down the column in this stage-by-stage fashion until we reach the bottom. We could also start at the bottom and proceed upwards. This ...

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