In this long chapter we developed the stage-by-stage balances for distillation columns and showed how to solve these equations when CMO is valid. You should now be able to satisfy the following objectives:

**1.** Write the mass and energy balances and equilibrium expressions for any stage in a column

**2.** Explain what CMO is, and determine if CMO is valid in a given situation

**3.** Derive the operating equations for CMO systems

**4.** Calculate the feed quality and determine its effect on flow rates. Plot the feed line on a y-x diagram

**5.** Determine the number of stages required, using the Lewis method and the McCabe-Thiele method

**6.** Develop and explain composition, temperature, and flow profiles

**7.** Solve any binary distillation problem ...

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