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Separation Process Engineering: Includes Mass Transfer Analysis, Third Edition by Phillip C. Wankat

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13.10.1 External Mass Balances

A countercurrent cascade allows for more complete removal of the solute, and the solvent is reused so less is needed. A schematic diagram of a countercurrent cascade is shown in Figure 13-20. All calculations will assume that the column is isothermal and isobaric and is operating at steady state. In the usual design problem, the column temperature and pressure, the flow rates and compositions of streams F and S, and the desired composition (or percent removal) of solute in the raffinate product are specified. The designer is required to determine the number of equilibrium stages needed for the specified separation and the flow rates and compositions of the outlet raffinate and extract streams. Thus, the known variables ...

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