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Separation Process Engineering: Includes Mass Transfer Analysis, Third Edition by Phillip C. Wankat

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14.2 Washing

When solid particles are being processed in liquid slurries, the solids entrain liquid with them. The removal of any solute contained in this entrained liquid is called washing. To be specific, consider an operation that mines sand from the ocean. The wet sand contains salt, and this salt can be removed by washing with pure water. The entrained liquid is called underflow liquid, because the solids are normally removed from the bottom of a settler as shown in Figure 14-1A. Washing is done by mixing solid (sand) and wash liquor (water) together in a mixer and sending the mixture to a settler or a thickener (Perry and Green, 1997, p. 18-64). The solids and entrained underflow liquid exit from the bottom of the settler, and clear overflow ...

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