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Separation Process Engineering: Includes Mass Transfer Analysis, Third Edition by Phillip C. Wankat

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15.5.3. Semi-Empirical and Empirical Mass-Transfer Coefficient Correlations

The results in Eqs. (15-40c) and (15-43b) assume that the flow is laminar and the gas-liquid surface is flat. At Reynolds numbers less than 250, the flow is laminar (Sherwood et al., 1975). However, even if the fluid flow remains laminar, ripples can appear on the surface. Ripples cause local mixing, which increases the liquid-side mass-transfer coefficient markedly. On the other hand, the area for mass transfer increases only slightly. If even small quantities of surfactant (e.g., soap or proteins) are added, the ripples are eliminated and the previously derived correlations for kc,liq,avg remain valid.

For long contact times (large L), Eq. (15-43b) will be valid if ...

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