**Answers to problems with an asterisk are at the back of the book.*

**D1.*** For Examples 16-1 and 16-2, estimate an average H_{OG} in the enriching section. Then calculate n_{OG} and h_{E} = H_{OG,avg} n_{OG}.

**D2.*** If 1-in metal Pall rings are used instead of 2-inch rings in Example 16-2:

**a.** Recalculate the flooding velocity and the required diameter.

**b.** Recalculate H_{G} and H_{L} in the enriching section.

**D3.** In part E of Example 16-2 a HETP value of 2.15 feet is calculated for the top of the enriching section. Since the average error in the individual mass transfer coefficients k_{y} and k_{x} can be ±24.4% (Wankat and Knaebel, 2008), calculate the range of HETP values at the top of the column (m = 0.63) and for a geometric average of m over the enriching section ...

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