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Separation Process Engineering: Includes Mass Transfer Analysis, Third Edition by Phillip C. Wankat

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17.7 Bulk Flow Pattern Effects

Completely mixed membrane systems are relatively common in laboratory units since the effects of concentration polarization and gel formation can be minimized or eliminated. Commercial units usually use one of the modules shown in Figure 17-1 since a large membrane area can be packaged in a small volume. The flow patterns of the bulk fluid in these modules are unlikely to be perfectly mixed but are more likely to approximate cross-flow (Figure 17-18A), co-current (Figure 17-18B) or countercurrent (Figure 17-18C) flow. Since these bulk flow patterns all result in better separation than a perfectly mixed module, our previous results are conservative estimates. In this section we will analyze ideal examples (that ...

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