## Chapter 4. *Binary Column Distillation: Internal Stage-by-Stage Balances*

### 4.0 Summary—Objectives

In this long chapter we develop the stage-by-stage balances for distillation columns and show how to solve these equations when molar flow rates in each section of the column are constant (called constant molal overflow [CMO]). When finished studying this chapter, you should be able to satisfy the following objectives:

**1.** Write mass and energy balances and equilibrium expressions for any stage in a column

**2.** Explain what CMO is, and determine if CMO is valid in a given situation

**3.** Derive the operating equations for CMO systems

**4.** Calculate the feed quality, and determine its effect on flow rates. Plot the feed line on a y-x diagram

**5.** Determine the ...