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Shale Oil and Gas Handbook

Book Description

Shale Oil and Gas Handbook: Theory, Technologies, and Challenges provides users with information on how shale oil and gas exploration has revolutionized today’s energy industry. As activity has boomed and job growth continues to increase, training in this area for new and experienced engineers is essential.

This book provides comprehensive information on both the engineering design and research aspects of this emerging industry. Covering the full spectrum of basic definitions, characteristics, drilling techniques, and processing and extraction technologies, the book is a great starting point to educate oil and gas personnel on today’s shale industry.

Critical topics covered include characterization of shale gas, theory and methods, typical costs, and obstacles for exploration and drilling, R&D and technology development in shale production, EOR methods in shale oil reservoirs, and the current status and impending challenges for shale oil and gas, including the inevitable future prospects relating to worldwide development.

  • Reveals all the basic information needed to quickly understand today’s shale oil and gas industry, including advantages and disadvantages, equipment and costs, flow diagrams, and processing stages
  • Evenly distributes coverage between oil and gas into two parts, as well as upstream and downstream content
  • Provides a practical handbook with real-world case studies and problem examples, including formulas and calculations

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. About the Authors
  6. Chapter One. Shale Gas: Introduction, Basics, and Definitions
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Natural Gas and Gas Reservoir Basics
    3. 3. Types of Natural Gas
    4. 4. What Are Shale and Shale Gas?
    5. 5. Types and Origin of Shale Gas
    6. 6. Occurrence and History of Shale Gas
    7. 7. Important Parameters in the Shale Gas Context
    8. 8. Shale Gas Reserves
    9. 9. Shale Gas Production Trend
    10. 10. Key Challenges in Shale Gas Production and Exploration
    11. 11. Shale Gas Importance
    12. 12. Applications of Shale Gas
  7. Chapter Two. Shale Gas Characteristics
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Characterization of Gas Shale: Background
    3. 3. Characterization of Gas Shale: Methods
    4. 4. Petrophysical Characteristics of Gas Shales
    5. 5. Composition of Shale Gas
    6. 6. Ranges of Temperature, Pressure, and Depth
    7. 7. Shale Gas Viscosity and Density
    8. 8. Thermal Properties of Gas Shales
    9. 9. PVT Behavior of Shale Gas Mixture
    10. 10. Petrology and Geochemistry of Gas Shale
    11. 11. Estimation of Gas in Place Volume
    12. 12. Geological Description of Gas Shale Formations
    13. 13. Porosity and Permeability: Theory and Experimental
    14. 14. Porosity and Permeability Measurements: Practical Methodologies
    15. 15. Pore Size Distribution in Gas Shales
    16. 16. Challenges in Shale Gas Characterization
    17. 17. Hot Topic Research
  8. Chapter Three. Exploration and Drilling in Shale Gas and Oil Reserves
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Exploration Techniques
    3. 3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Exploration Techniques
    4. 4. Challenges and Risks in Shale Gas and Oil Formations
    5. 5. Typical Exploration Costs
    6. 6. Surface Mining
    7. 7. Underground Mining
    8. 8. Drilling Technologies
    9. 9. Horizontal, Vertical, and Directional Drilling
    10. 10. Hydraulic Fracturing
    11. 11. Exploration Wells
  9. Chapter Four. Shale Gas Production Technologies
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Production of Shale Gas
    3. 3. Rock Properties
    4. 4. Production Methods
    5. 5. Drilling Methodology
    6. 6. Optimization
    7. 7. Limitations
    8. 8. Gas Liquid Separation
    9. 9. Corrosion Issues
    10. 10. Transportation and Storage
    11. 11. Mathematical Formulas for Transport Flow
    12. 12. Shale Gas Production
    13. 13. Research and Development
    14. 14. Future Prospects
    15. 15. Economic Considerations
    16. 16. Conclusions
  10. Chapter Five. Shale Gas Processing
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Shale Gas Processing: Background
    3. 3. Description of Gas Processing Stages
    4. 4. Hydrate Formation and Inhibition
    5. 5. Gas Dehydration Process and Technologies
    6. 6. Gas Sweetening
    7. 7. Process Design of Gas Processing Plants
    8. 8. Modeling and Optimization of Equipment or/and Units in Gas Processing Plants
    9. 9. Transport Phenomena in Gas Processing
    10. 10. Corrosion in Gas Processing Plants
    11. 11. Typical Costs for Shale Gas Processing
  11. Chapter Six. Shale Oil: Fundamentals, Definitions, and Applications
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Types of Crude Oil and Oil Reservoirs
    3. 3. Shale Oil
    4. 4. Shale Oil Composition
    5. 5. Kerogen and Its Composition
    6. 6. Types and Source of Shale Oil
    7. 7. Occurrence and History of Shale Oil
    8. 8. Definitions of Main Factors and Parameters in Shale Oil Framework
    9. 9. Oil Shale Reservoirs
    10. 10. Production History of Shale Oil Reservoirs
    11. 11. Estimates of Recoverable Shale Oil Resources
    12. 12. Importance of Oil Shale
    13. 13. Short Descriptions of Main Companies Involved in Oil Shale Development
    14. 14. Energy Implication of Shale Oil
  12. Chapter Seven. Properties of Shale Oil
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Shale Oil Utilization
    3. 3. Oil Shale Formations
    4. 4. Kerogen: Types, Structure, and History
    5. 5. Characterization Methods for Shale Oil
    6. 6. Extraction Processes for Shale Oil
    7. 7. Characteristics of Shale Oil
    8. 8. Characteristics of Oil Shales
    9. 9. Pressure on Configuration of Oil and Gas Markets
  13. Chapter Eight. Production Methods in Shale Oil Reservoirs
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. History of Shale Oil Production Development
    3. 3. Production Methods for Oil Reservoirs
    4. 4. Production Techniques for Shale Oil Reservoirs
    5. 5. Effect of Rock Properties on Oil Production From Oil Shales
    6. 6. Shale Oil Wellhead and Gathering
    7. 7. Limitations for Production From Oil Shale: Operational Problems
    8. 8. Examples of Production Techniques Implication in Real Oil Shale Cases
    9. 9. Governing Equations to Model Shale Oil Production Methods
    10. 10. Modeling and Optimization of Production Techniques in Shale Oil Reservoirs
    11. 11. Screen Criteria for Oil Production in Oil Shale
    12. 12. Advantages and Limitations of Oil Production Technology in Shale Oil Reservoirs
    13. 13. Technical and Economic Aspects of Oil Production in Shale Oil Reservoirs
    14. 14. Typical Costs to Conduct Oil Production Processes in Oil Shale
    15. 15. Environmental/Public Support Issues With Shale Oil
    16. 16. Opposing Views Regarding Shale Oil
    17. 17. Future Prospects of Oil Shale Production
    18. 18. Research and Technology Development in Shale Oil Production
    19. 19. Conclusions and Recommendations
  14. Chapter Nine. Shale Oil Processing and Extraction Technologies
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Description of Oil Shale Processing
    3. 3. What Is Oil Shale Retorting?
    4. 4. Chemistry of Oil Shale Retorting
    5. 5. Chemistry of Kerogen Decomposition
    6. 6. Chemistry of Carbonate Decomposition
    7. 7. Pyrolysis or Retorting of Oil Shale: Experiments, Apparatus, Methodology
    8. 8. Optimal Retorting Conditions
    9. 9. Kinetics of Pyrolysis or Retorting of Oil Shale
    10. 10. Isothermal and Nonisothermal Kinetics Measurement and Expressions for Shale Oil
    11. 11. Ex Situ Retorting Techniques
    12. 12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Ex Situ Processes
    13. 13. In Situ Retorting Techniques
    14. 14. Wall Conduction
    15. 15. Externally Generated Hot Gas
    16. 16. ExxonMobil Electrofrac
    17. 17. Volumetric Heating
    18. 18. Advantages and Disadvantages of In Situ Processes
    19. 19. Shale Oil Refining and Upgrading Processes
    20. 20. Advantages and Disadvantages of Refining and Upgrading Techniques
    21. 21. Supercritical Extraction of Oil From Shale
    22. 22. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Oil Shale: Experiments, Apparatus, and Procedure
    23. 23. Supercritical Methanol/Water Extraction of Oil Shale
    24. 24. Continuous Supercritical Extraction
    25. 25. Advantages and Disadvantages of Supercritical Extraction Methods
    26. 26. Mathematical Modeling of Oil Shale Pyrolysis
    27. 27. Parametric Study of Oil Shale Pyrolysis
    28. 28. Economic Considerations in Oil Shale Processing
    29. 29. Theoretical, Practical, and Economic Challenges in Oil Shale Processing
    30. 30. Hot Topic Research Studies in Oil Shale Processing and Extraction Technologies
  15. Chapter Ten. Shale Oil and Gas: Current Status, Future, and Challenges
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Political Implications
    3. 3. Federal and Provincial (or State) Regulations
    4. 4. Environmental Issues/Aspects
    5. 5. Geomechanics Challenges
    6. 6. Comparison of Conventional and Shale Oil and Gas Reserves
    7. 7. Management Rules in Development of Oil and Gas Shale
    8. 8. Technical and Economic Constraints
    9. 9. Economic Challenges
    10. 10. Research Needs in Oil and Gas Shale
    11. 11. Past and Current Status of Oil and Gas Shale
    12. 12. Future Prospects of Oil and Gas Shale
    13. 13. Current Projects for Oil and Gas Shale
  16. Index