This chapter discusses various factors that affect reliable radio communication. Propagation of electromagnetic waves is influenced by physical objects in and near the of line-of-sight path between transmitter and receiver. After presenting the free space equation relating path loss to distance, we explain the effects of reflection, diffraction and scattering of radio waves on the communication link. The link budget is introduced, with which known link parameters among transmitted power, receiver sensitivity, path loss and antenna gains are used to estimate the value of an unknown parameter that is required to give a stated communication performance. The multipath phenomenon and the types of fading it ...
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