Book description
The complete guide to understanding and designing for signal integrity
Suitable for even nonspecialists, Signal Integrity—Simplified offers a comprehensive, easytofollow look at how physical interconnects affect electrical performance. Worldclass engineer Eric Bogatin expertly reviews the root causes of the four families of signal integrity problems and offers solutions to design them out early in the design cycle. Coverage includes:
An introduction to signal integrity and physical design
A fundamental understanding of what bandwidth, inductance, and characteristic impedance really mean
Analysis of resistance, capacitance, inductance, and impedance
The four important practical tools used to solve signal integrity problems: rules of thumb, analytic approximations, numerical simulation, and measurements
The effect of the physical design of interconnects on signal integrity
Solutions that do not hide behind mathematical derivations
Recommendations for design guidelines to improve signal integrity, and much more
Unlike related books that concentrate on theoretical derivation and mathematical rigor, this book emphasizes intuitive understanding, practical tools, and engineering discipline. Specially designed for everyone in the electronics industry, from electrical engineers to product managers, Signal Integrity—Simplified will prove itself an invaluable resource for helping you find and fix signal integrity problems before they become problems.
Table of contents
 Copyright
 Prentice Hall Modern Semiconductor Design Series
 About Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
 Preface

1. Signal Integrity Is in Your Future
 1.1. What Is Signal Integrity?
 1.2. Signal Quality on a Single Net
 1.3. Cross Talk
 1.4. RailCollapse Noise
 1.5. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
 1.6. Two Important Signal Integrity Generalizations
 1.7. Trends in Electronic Products
 1.8. The Need for a New Design Methodology
 1.9. A New Product Design Methodology
 1.10. Simulations
 1.11. Modeling and Models
 1.12. Creating Circuit Models from Calculation
 1.13. Three Types of Measurements
 1.14. The Role of Measurements
 1.15. The Bottom Line

2. Time and Frequency Domains
 2.1. The Time Domain
 2.2. Sine Waves in the Frequency Domain
 2.3. Shorter Time to a Solution in the Frequency Domain
 2.4. Sine Wave Features
 2.5. The Fourier Transform
 2.6. The Spectrum of a Repetitive Signal
 2.7. The Spectrum of an Ideal Square Wave
 2.8. From the Frequency Domain to the Time Domain
 2.9. Effect of Bandwidth on Rise Time
 2.10. Bandwidth and Rise Time
 2.11. What Does “Significant” Mean?
 2.12. Bandwidth of Real Signals
 2.13. Bandwidth and Clock Frequency
 2.14. Bandwidth of a Measurement
 2.15. Bandwidth of a Model
 2.16. Bandwidth of an Interconnect
 2.17. Bottom Line

3. Impedance and Electrical Models
 3.1. Describing SignalIntegrity Solutions in Terms of Impedance
 3.2. What Is Impedance?
 3.3. Real vs. Ideal Circuit Elements
 3.4. Impedance of an Ideal Resistor in the Time Domain
 3.5. Impedance of an Ideal Capacitor in the Time Domain
 3.6. Impedance of an Ideal Inductor in the Time Domain
 3.7. Impedance in the Frequency Domain
 3.8. Equivalent Electrical Circuit Models
 3.9. Circuit Theory and SPICE
 3.10. Introduction to Modeling
 3.11. The Bottom Line
 4. The Physical Basis of Resistance
 5. The Physical Basis of Capacitance

6. The Physical Basis of Inductance
 6.1. What Is Inductance?
 6.2. Inductance Principle #1: There Are Circular MagneticField Line Loops Around All Currents
 6.3. Inductance Principle #2: Inductance Is the Number of Webers of Field Line Loops Around a Conductor per Amp of Current Through It
 6.4. SelfInductance and Mutual Inductance
 6.5. Inductance Principle #3: When the Number of Field Line Loops Around a Conductor Changes, There Will Be a Voltage Induced Across the Ends of the Conductor
 6.6. Partial Inductance
 6.7. Effective, Total, or Net Inductance and Ground Bounce
 6.8. Loop Self and Mutual Inductance
 6.9. The PowerDistribution System (PDS) and Loop Inductance
 6.10. Loop Inductance per Square of Planes
 6.11. Loop Inductance of Planes and Via Contacts
 6.12. Loop Inductance of Planes with a Field of Clearance Holes
 6.13. Loop Mutual Inductance
 6.14. Equivalent Inductance
 6.15. Summary of Inductance
 6.16. Current Distributions and Skin Depth
 6.17. HighPermeability Materials
 6.18. Eddy Currents
 6.19. The Bottom Line

7. The Physical Basis of Transmission Lines
 7.1. Forget the Word Ground
 7.2. The Signal
 7.3. Uniform Transmission Lines
 7.4. The Speed of Electrons in Copper
 7.5. The Speed of a Signal in a Transmission Line
 7.6. Spatial Extent of the Leading Edge
 7.7. “Be the Signal”
 7.8. The Instantaneous Impedance of a Transmission Line
 7.9. Characteristic Impedance and Controlled Impedance
 7.10. Famous Characteristic Impedances
 7.11. The Impedance of a Transmission Line
 7.12. Driving a Transmission Line
 7.13. Return Paths
 7.14. When Return Paths Switch Reference Planes
 7.15. A FirstOrder Model of a Transmission Line
 7.16. Calculating Characteristic Impedance with Approximations
 7.17. Calculating the Characteristic Impedance with a 2D Field Solver
 7.18. An nSection Lumped Circuit Model
 7.19. Frequency Variation of the Characteristic Impedance
 7.20. The Bottom Line

8. Transmission Lines and Reflections
 8.1. Reflections at Impedance Changes
 8.2. Why Are There Reflections?
 8.3. Reflections from Resistive Loads
 8.4. Source Impedance
 8.5. Bounce Diagrams
 8.6. Simulating Reflected Waveforms
 8.7. Measuring Reflections with a TDR
 8.8. Transmission Lines and Unintentional Discontinuities
 8.9. When to Terminate
 8.10. The Most Common Termination Strategy for PointtoPoint Topology
 8.11. Reflections from Short Series Transmission Lines
 8.12. Reflections from ShortStub Transmission Lines
 8.13. Reflections from Capacitive End Terminations
 8.14. Reflections from Capacitive Loads in the Middle of a Trace
 8.15. Capacitive Delay Adders
 8.16. Effects of Corners and Vias
 8.17. Loaded Lines
 8.18. Reflections from Inductive Discontinuities
 8.19. Compensation
 8.20. The Bottom Line

9. Lossy Lines, RiseTime Degradation, and Material Properties
 9.1. Why Worry About Lossy Lines
 9.2. Losses in Transmission Lines
 9.3. Sources of Loss: Conductor Resistance and Skin Depth
 9.4. Sources of Loss: The Dielectric
 9.5. Dissipation Factor
 9.6. The Real Meaning of Dissipation Factor
 9.7. Modeling Lossy Transmission Lines
 9.8. Characteristic Impedance of a Lossy Transmission Line
 9.9. Signal Velocity in a Lossy Transmission Line
 9.10. Attenuation and the dB
 9.11. Attenuation in Lossy Lines
 9.12. Measured Properties of a Lossy Line in the Frequency Domain
 9.13. The Bandwidth of an Interconnect
 9.14. TimeDomain Behavior of Lossy Lines
 9.15. Improving the Eye Diagram of a Transmission Line
 9.16. Preemphasis and Equalization
 9.17. The Bottom Line

10. Cross Talk in Transmission Lines
 10.1. Superposition
 10.2. Origin of Coupling: Capacitance and Inductance
 10.3. Cross Talk in Transmission Lines: NEXT and FEXT
 10.4. Describing Cross Talk
 10.5. The SPICE Capacitance Matrix
 10.6. The Maxwell Capacitance Matrix and 2D Field Solvers
 10.7. The Inductance Matrix
 10.8. Cross Talk in Uniform Transmission Lines and Saturation Length
 10.9. Capacitively Coupled Currents
 10.10. Inductively Coupled Currents
 10.11. NearEnd Cross Talk
 10.12. FarEnd Cross Talk
 10.13. Decreasing FarEnd Cross Talk
 10.14. Simulating Cross Talk
 10.15. Guard Traces
 10.16. Cross Talk and Dielectric Constant
 10.17. Cross Talk and Timing
 10.18. Switching Noise
 10.19. Summary of Reducing Cross Talk
 10.20. The Bottom Line

11. Differential Pairs and Differential Impedance
 11.1. Differential Signaling
 11.2. A Differential Pair
 11.3. Differential Impedance with No Coupling
 11.4. The Impact from Coupling
 11.5. Calculating Differential Impedance
 11.6. The ReturnCurrent Distribution in a Differential Pair
 11.7. Odd and Even Modes
 11.8. Differential Impedance and OddMode Impedance
 11.9. Common Impedance and EvenMode Impedance
 11.10. Differential and Common Signals and Odd and EvenMode Voltage Components
 11.11. Velocity of Each Mode and FarEnd Cross Talk
 11.12. Ideal Coupled TransmissionLine Model or an Ideal Differential Pair
 11.13. Measuring Even and OddMode Impedance
 11.14. Terminating Differential and Common Signals
 11.15. Conversion of Differential to Common Signals
 11.16. EMI and Common Signals
 11.17. Cross Talk in Differential Pairs
 11.18. Crossing a Gap in the Return Path
 11.19. To Tightly Couple or Not to Tightly Couple
 11.20. Calculating Odd and Even Modes from Capacitance and InductanceMatrix Elements
 11.21. The Characteristic Impedance Matrix
 11.22. The Bottom Line
 A. 100 General Design Guidelines to Minimize SignalIntegrity Problems
 B. 100 Collected Rules of Thumb to Help Estimate SignalIntegrity Effects

C. Selected References
 About the Author
Product information
 Title: Signal Integrity  Simplified
 Author(s):
 Release date: September 2003
 Publisher(s): Pearson
 ISBN: 9780130669469
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