Chapter 11Synchronization and Signal Shifting

Several types of synchronization are of interest in wireless communications: carrier synchronization, symbol synchronization, frame synchronization, and code synchronization. Carrier synchronization and symbol synchronization, which are generally continuous-time processes in the real world, require special attention in digital simulations. These types of synchronization are discussed in this chapter. Other types of synchronization that are generally discrete-time processes are covered in Chapter 16.

In simulation, synchronization comprises two subtasks: (1) determining how much a signal has shifted in time or phase relative to some reference, and (2) shifting either the signal or the reference by ...

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