As we've seen in previous chapters, there are two distinct styles of smart cards found in widespread deployment today:
fixed command set cards built around the ISO/IEC 7816-4 command set
post-issuance programmable smart cards
With the first style, the card is designed with a command set that is applicable to a particular application area. As you remember from Chapter 4, the International Standards Organization (ISO) command set is aimed at provision of an on-card file system for storing and retrieving data, and with a security model through which the on-card and off-card elements of applications can authenticate themselves to each other. This security model also allows the cardholder to authenticate himself ...