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Smart Cities

Book Description

Provides the foundations and principles needed for addressing the various challenges of developing smart cities

Smart cities are emerging as a priority for research and development across the world. They open up significant opportunities in several areas, such as economic growth, health, wellness, energy efficiency, and transportation, to promote the sustainable development of cities. This book provides the basics of smart cities, and it examines the possible future trends of this technology. Smart Cities: Foundations, Principles, and Applications provides a systems science perspective in presenting the foundations and principles that span multiple disciplines for the development of smart cities.

Divided into three parts—foundations, principles, and applications—Smart Cities addresses the various challenges and opportunities of creating smart cities and all that they have to offer. It also covers smart city theory modeling and simulation, and examines case studies of existing smart cities from all around the world. In addition, the book:

  • Addresses how to develop a smart city and how to present the state of the art and practice of them all over the world
  • Focuses on the foundations and principles needed for advancing the science, engineering, and technology of smart cities—including system design, system verification, real-time control and adaptation, Internet of Things, and test beds
  • Covers applications of smart cities as they relate to smart transportation/connected vehicle (CV) and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for improved mobility, safety, and environmental protection

Smart Cities: Foundations, Principles, and Applications is a welcome reference for the many researchers and professionals working on the development of smart cities and smart city-related industries.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Editors Biographies
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Chapter 1: Cyber–Physical Systems in Smart Cities – Mastering Technological, Economic, and Social Challenges
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Setting the Scene: Demarcating the Smart City and Cyber–Physical Systems
    3. 1.3 Process Fields of CPS-Driven Smart City Development
    4. 1.4 Economic and Social Challenges of Implementing the CPS-Enhanced Smart City
    5. 1.5 Conclusions: Suggestions for Planning the CPS-Driven Smart City
    6. Final Thoughts
    7. Questions
    8. References
  10. Chapter 2: Big Data Analytics Processes and Platforms Facilitating Smart Cities
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Why Big Data Analytics (BDA) Is Significant for Smarter Cities
    3. 2.3 Describing the Big Data Paradigm
    4. 2.4 The Prominent Sources of Big Data
    5. 2.5 Describing Big Data Analytics (BDA)
    6. 2.6 The Big Trends and Use Cases of Big Data Analytics
    7. 2.7 The Open Data for Next-Generation Cities
    8. 2.8 The Big Data Analytics (BDA) Platforms
    9. 2.9 Big Data Analytics Frameworks and Infrastructure
    10. 2.10 Summary
    11. Final Thoughts
    12. Questions
    13. References
  11. Chapter 3: Multi-Scale Computing for a Sustainable Built Environment
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Modeling and Computing for Sustainability Transitions
    3. 3.3 Multi-Scale Modeling and Computing for the Built Environment
    4. 3.4 Research in Modeling and Computing for the Built Environment
    5. Final Thoughts
    6. Questions
    7. References
  12. Chapter 4: Autonomous Radios and Open Spectrum in Smart Cities
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Candidate Wireless Technologies
    3. 4.3 PHY and MAC Layer Issues in Cognitive Radio Networks
    4. 4.4 Frequency Envelope Modulation (FEM)
    5. 4.5 Conclusion
    6. Final Thoughts
    7. Questions
    8. References
  13. Chapter 5: Mobile Crowd-Sensing for Smart Cities
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Overview of Mobile Crowd-Sensing
    3. 5.3 Issues and Challenges of Crowd-sensing in Smart Cities
    4. 5.4 Crowd-sensing Frameworks for Smart City
    5. 5.5 Conclusion
    6. Final Thoughts
    7. Questions
    8. References
  14. Chapter 6: Wide-Area Monitoring and Control of Smart Energy Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS)
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Challenges and Opportunities
    3. 6.3 Solutions
    4. 6.4 Conclusions and Future Direction
    5. Final Thoughts
    6. Questions
    7. References
  15. Chapter 7: Smart Technologies and Vehicle-to-X (V2X) Infrastructures for Smart Mobility Cities
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Data Communications in Smart City Infrastructure
    3. 7.3 Deployment: An Economic Point of View
    4. 7.4 Connected Cars
    5. 7.5 Concluding Remarks
    6. Final Thoughts
    7. Questions
    8. References
  16. Chapter 8: Smart Ecology of Cities: Integrating Development Impacts on Ecosystem Services for Land Parcels
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Need for Smart Ecology of Cities
    3. 8.3 Ecosystem Service Modeling (CO2 Sequestration, PM10 Filtration, Drainage)
    4. 8.4 Methodology
    5. 8.5 Implementation of Development Impacts in Dynamic-SIM Platform
    6. 8.6 Discussion (Assumptions, Limitations, and Future Work)
    7. 8.7 Conclusion
    8. Final Thoughts
    9. Questions
    10. References
  17. Chapter 9: Data-Driven Modeling, Control, and Tools for Smart Cities
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Related Work
    3. 9.3 Problem Definition
    4. 9.4 Data-Driven Demand Response
    5. 9.5 DR Synthesis with Regression Trees
    6. 9.6 The Case for Using Regression Trees for Demand Response
    7. 9.7 DR-Advisor: Toolbox Design
    8. 9.8 Case Study
    9. 9.9 Final Thoughts
    10. Questions
    11. References
  18. Chapter 10: Bringing Named Data Networks into Smart Cities
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Future Internet Architectures
    3. 10.3 Named Data Networking (NDN)
    4. 10.4 NDN-based Application Scenarios for Smart Cities
    5. 10.5 Future Aspects of NDN in Smart Cities
    6. 10.6 Conclusion
    7. Final Thoughts
    8. Questions
    9. References
  19. Chapter 11: Human Context Sensing in Smart Cities
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Human Context Types
    3. 11.3 Sensing Technologies
    4. 11.4 Conclusion
    5. Final Thoughts
    6. Questions
    7. References
  20. Chapter 12: Smart Cities and the Symbiotic Relationship between Smart Governance and Citizen Engagement
    1. 12.1 Smart Governance
    2. 12.2 Case Study – Somerville, Massachusetts
    3. 12.3 Looking Ahead
    4. Final Thoughts
    5. Questions
    6. References
  21. Chapter 13: Smart Economic Development
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Perception of Resource Value, Market Outcomes, and Price
    3. 13.3 Conscious Consumption and the Sustainability Foundation of Smart Cities
    4. Final Thoughts
    5. Questions
    6. References
  22. Chapter 14: Managing the Cyber Security Life-Cycle of Smart Cities
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Smart City Services
    3. 14.3 Smart Services Technologies
    4. 14.4 Smart Services Security Issues
    5. 14.5 Management of Cyber Security of Smart Cities
    6. 14.6 Discussion
    7. 14.7 Conclusion
    8. Questions
    9. References
  23. Chapter 15: Mobility as a Service
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Mobility as a Service
    3. 15.3 Case Studies on Mobility as a Service
    4. 15.4 Conclusions and Further Research
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. Final Thoughts
    7. Questions
    8. References
  24. Chapter 16: Clustering and Fuzzy Reasoning as Data Mining Methods for the Development of Retrofit Strategies for Building Stocks
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Method
    3. 16.3 Application Case
    4. 16.4 Data Sources and Preprocessing
    5. 16.5 Clustering
    6. 16.6 Fuzzy Reasoning
    7. 16.7 Mixed Fuzzy Reasoning and Clustering
    8. 16.8 Postprocessing: Interpretation and Strategy Identification
    9. 16.9 Comparison and Discussion of Methods
    10. 16.10 Conclusion
    11. Final Thoughts
    12. Questions
    13. Acknowledgments
    14. References
  25. Chapter 17: A Framework to Achieve Large Scale Energy Savings for Building Stocks through Targeted Occupancy Interventions
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Objectives
    3. 17.3 Review of Occupancy-Focused Energy Efficiency Interventions
    4. 17.4 Role of Occupants' Characteristics in Building Energy Use
    5. 17.5 A Conceptual Framework for Delivering Targeted Occupancy-Focused Interventions
    6. 17.6 Case Study Example
    7. 17.7 Discussion
    8. 17.8 Conclusions and Policy Implications
    9. Questions
    10. Acknowledgment
    11. References
  26. Chapter 18: Sustainability in Smart Cities: Balancing Social, Economic, Environmental, and Institutional Aspects of Urban Life
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Sustainability Assessment in Our Cities
    3. 18.3 Sustainability in Smart Cities
    4. 18.4 Achieving Balanced Sustainability
    5. Final Thoughts
    6. Questions
    7. Appendix 1
    8. References
  27. Chapter 19: Toward Resilience of the Electric Grid
    1. 19.1 Electric Grids in Smart Cities
    2. 19.2 Threats to Electric Grids
    3. 19.3 Electric Grid Response under Threats
    4. 19.4 Defense against Threats to Electric Grids
    5. Final Thoughts
    6. Questions
    7. References
  28. Chapter 20: Smart Energy and Grid: Novel Approaches for the Efficient Generation, Storage, and Usage of Energy in the Smart Home and the Smart Grid Linkup
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 Generation of Energy
    3. 20.3 Storage of Energy
    4. 20.5 Summary
    5. Final Thoughts
    6. Questions
    7. References
  29. Chapter 21: Building Cyber-Physical Systems – A Smart Building Use Case
    1. 21.1 Foundations – From Automation to Smart Homes
    2. 21.2 From Today's Technologically Augmented Houses to Tomorrow's Smart Homes
    3. 21.3 Smart Home: A Cyber-Physical Ecosystem
    4. 21.4 Connecting Smart Homes and Smart Cities
    5. 21.5 Conclusion and Future Research Focus
    6. Final Thoughts
    7. Questions
    8. References
  30. Chapter 22: Climate Resilience and the Design of Smart Buildings
    1. 22.1 Climate Change and Future Buildings and Cities
    2. 22.2 Carbon Inventory and Current Goals
    3. 22.3 Incorporating Predicted Climate Variability in Building Design
    4. 22.4 Case Studies
    5. 22.5 Implications for Future Cities and Net-Zero Buildings
    6. Final Thoughts
    7. Questions
    8. References
  31. Chapter 23: Smart Audio Sensing-Based HVAC Monitoring
    1. 23.1 Introduction
    2. 23.2 Background
    3. 23.3 The Design of SASEM
    4. 23.4 Experimental Results
    5. Final Thoughts
    6. Questions
    7. Acknowledgement
    8. References
  32. Chapter 24: Smart Lighting
    1. 24.1 Introduction
    2. 24.2 Background
    3. 24.3 Smart Lighting Applications
    4. 24.4 Visible Light Communication (Smart Lighting Communication) System
    5. 24.5 Conclusion and Outlook
    6. Final Thoughts
    7. Questions
    8. References
  33. Chapter 25: Large Scale Air-Quality Monitoring in Smart and Sustainable Cities
    1. 25.1 Introduction
    2. 25.2 Current Approaches to Air Quality Monitoring and Their Limitations
    3. 25.3 Overview of a Cloud-based Air Quality Monitoring System
    4. 25.4 Cloud-Connected Air Quality Monitors
    5. 25.5 Cloud-Side System Design and Considerations
    6. 25.6 Data Analytics in the Cloud
    7. 25.7 Applications and APIs
    8. Final Thoughts
    9. Questions
    10. References
  34. Chapter 26: The Smart City Production System
    1. 26.1 Introduction
    2. 26.2 Types of Production System: Historical Evolution
    3. 26.3 The Integrated Smart City Production System Framework
    4. 26.4 Production System Design
    5. 26.5 Chapter Summary
    6. Final Thoughts
    7. Questions
    8. References
  35. Chapter 27: Smart Health Monitoring Using Smart Systems
    1. 27.1 Introduction
    2. 27.2 Background
    3. 27.3 Integration for Monitoring Applications
    4. 27.4 Conclusion
    5. Final Thoughts
    6. Questions
    7. References
  36. Chapter 28: Significance of Automated Driving in Japan
    1. 28.1 Introduction
    2. 28.2 Definitions of Automated Driving Systems
    3. 28.3 A History of Research and Development of Automated Driving Systems
    4. 28.4 Expected Benefits of Automated Driving
    5. 28.5 Issues of Automated Driving for Market Introduction
    6. 28.6 Possible Market Introduction of Automated Driving Systems in Japan
    7. 28.7 Conclusion
    8. Questions
    9. References
  37. Chapter 29: Environmental-Assisted Vehicular Data in Smart Cities
    1. 29.1 Location-Related Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Cities
    2. 29.2 Opportunities of Using Environmental Evidences
    3. 29.3 Challenges of Creating Location Proofs
    4. 29.4 Environmental Evidence-Assisted Vehicular Data Framework
    5. 29.5 Conclusion
    6. Final Thoughts
    7. Questions
    8. References
  38. Index
  39. End User License Agreement