6. Energy Efficiency

Energy is a bit like money: If you have a positive balance, you can distribute it in various ways, but according to the classical laws that were believed at the beginning of the century, you weren’t allowed to be overdrawn.

—Stephen Hawking

Energy used by computers used to be free and unlimited—or at least that’s how we behaved. Architects rarely gave much consideration to the energy consumption of software in the past. But those days are now gone. With the dominance of mobile devices as the primary form of computing for most people, with the increasing adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) in industry and government, and with the ubiquity of cloud services as the backbone of our computing infrastructure, energy has become ...

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