Seepage forces – General flow equation – Significance of Laplace's equation – Properties and applications of flow nets – Construction of flow nets: boundary conditions, construction methods, flow nets for sheet piles and dams – Anisotropic soil conditions – Non-homogeneous soil conditions – Piping –Design of filters


Groundwater is frequently encountered in construction projects. The movement of water through soil is referred to as seepage, and such movement leads to several groups of problems in civil engineering. Seepage of water has a bearing on three major types of problems, viz., (i) loss of stored water through an earth dam or foundation, (ii) instability of slopes and foundations of hydraulic ...

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