Chapter 2

Environmental Characteristics

Abstract

Chapter 2 gives an analysis of the environmental characteristics of solar radiation and in particular the reckoning of time and solar angles. In the latter the basic solar geometry equations are given including declination, hour angle, altitude angle, azimuth angle as well as the incidence angle for stationary and moving surfaces, sun path diagrams, and shadow determination including the way to calculate shading effects. This is followed by a description of the basic principles of solar radiation heat transfer including transparent plates, radiation exchange between surfaces, extraterrestrial solar radiation, atmospheric attenuation, terrestrial irradiation, and total radiation on tilted surfaces. ...

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