Chapter 1

1.1 From the diameter and effective surface temperature of the sun, estimate the rate at which it emits energy. What fraction of this emitted energy is intercepted by the earth? Estimate the solar constant, given the mean earth-sun distance.

1.2 What would be the “solar constant” for Venus? Mean Venus-sun distance is 0.72 times the mean earth-sun distance. Assume the sun to be a blackbody emitter at 5777 K.

1.3 What fraction of the extraterrestrial radiation is at wavelengths below 0.5 μm? 2 μm? What fraction is included in the wavelength range

1.4 Divide the extraterrestrial solar spectrum into 10 equal increments of energy. Specify a characteristic wavelength for each increment.

1.5 Calculate the angle of incidence of the beam solar radiation at 1400 (2 pm) solar time on February 10 at on surfaces of the following orientations:

a. Horizontal
b. Sloped to south at
c. Slope of , facing west of south
d. Vertical, facing south
e. Vertical, facing west


a. When it is 2 pm ...

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