5.2. Solar Water Heating Systems

The share of energy used to heat the DHW has been increasing significantly as the thermal performance of building an envelope has been improving. The heating energy for DHW depends on the use of water, which has decreased significantly during the last few decades. Twenty five years ago the average use was around 200 l/day/pers in residential buildings; now it is 120–140 l/day/pers. The reduction is partly due to water-saving faucets, new washing methods and, even more importantly, the common use of a shower instead of a bath tub for a better personal hygiene. About 40% of the domestic water is used as hot water. It can correspond to 30–40 kWh/m2 of energy use in residential buildings, which is significant (25%) ...

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