Solar Module Packaging

Book description

Exploring current and future opportunities in PV polymeric packaging, this work offers an insider's perspective on the manufacturing processes and needs of the solar industry and reveals opportunities for future material development and processing. Suitable for nonspecialists in polymer science, it provides a basic understanding of polymeric concepts, fundamental properties, and processing techniques commonly used in solar module packaging. The book also presents guidelines for using polymers in commercial PV modules as well as the tests required to establish confidence in the selection process.

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. 1. Introduction to Polymers
    1. 1.1 A Brief Historical Perspective
    2. 1.2 Chemical Structure, Nomenclature, and Morphology
    3. 1.3 Polymeric Classification Based on Thermal and Mechanical Properties
      1. 1.3.1 Thermoplastics
      2. 1.3.2 Thermosets
      3. 1.3.3 Ionomers
      4. 1.3.4 Elastomers
    4. References
  9. 2. Certification and Characterization of Photovoltaic Packaging
    1. 2.1 Overview of Photovoltaic Installations
    2. 2.2 Selection Requirements for Photovoltaic Packaging
      1. 2.2.1 Certification and Compliance Criteria
        1. 2.2.1.1 Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directives
        2. 2.2.1.2 Underwriters Laboratories
        3. 2.2.1.3 International Electrotechnical Commission
        4. 2.2.1.4 American Standard for Testing Materials
    3. 2.3 Optical Properties
      1. 2.3.1 Material Properties
        1. 2.3.1.1 Refractive Index Measurements
        2. 2.3.1.2 Yellowness Index
      2. 2.3.2 Photovoltaic Module Performance
        1. 2.3.2.1 Quantum Efficiency Measurements
        2. 2.3.2.2 Current-Voltage (IV) Measurements
    4. 2.4 Thermal Properties
      1. 2.4.1 Material Properties
        1. 2.4.1.1 Morphology
        2. 2.4.1.2 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
        3. 2.4.1.3 Thermal Conductivity
      2. 2.4.2 Photovoltaic Module Performance
        1. 2.4.2.1 Frame Warp
        2. 2.4.2.2 In-Service Temperature Measurements
    5. 2.5 Mechanical Properties
      1. 2.5.1 Material Properties
        1. 2.5.1.1 Durometer
        2. 2.5.1.2 Peel Strength
        3. 2.5.1.3 Tensile and Compression
        4. 2.5.1.4 Impact Resistance
        5. 2.5.1.5 Flexural Testing
      2. 2.5.2 Photovoltaic Module Performance
        1. 2.5.2.1 Thermal Cycling and Humidity Testing
        2. 2.5.2.2 Salt Fog
        3. 2.5.2.3 Snow Loading
    6. 2.6 Electrical Properties
      1. 2.6.1 Material Properties: Dielectric Properties
      2. 2.6.2 Photovoltaic Module Performance
        1. 2.6.2.1 Wet-Leak Testing
        2. 2.6.2.2 High-Potential Testing
    7. 2.7 Flammability
      1. 2.7.1 Material Properties
      2. 2.7.2 Photovoltaic Module Performance
    8. 2.8 Weathering Stability
      1. 2.8.1 Material Properties
        1. 2.8.1.1 Stabilizer Package
        2. 2.8.1.2 Transmission Rates
        3. 2.8.1.3 Hydrolytic Degradation
        4. 2.8.1.4 Oxidative Degradation
      2. 2.8.2 Photovoltaic Module Performance
        1. 2.8.2.1 Accelerated UV Aging Techniques
        2. 2.8.2.2 Developing an Accelerated Test
        3. 2.8.2.3 Data Analysis
    9. References
  10. 3. Polymer Specifications for Photovoltaic (PV) Packaging and Balance of System (BOS) Components
    1. 3.1 Commercial Formulations
      1. 3.1.1 Polymeric Stabilizers
      2. 3.1.2 Polymeric Modifiers
      3. 3.1.3 Other Classifications
    2. 3.2 The Effect of Additives on Polymeric Properties
    3. 3.3 Common Failure Mechanisms in Photovoltaic Packaging
    4. 3.4 Encapsulants
      1. 3.4.1 Polysiloxane
      2. 3.4.2 Polyvinyl Acetate and Polyethylene
      3. 3.4.3 Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer
      4. 3.4.4 Polyvinyl Butyral
      5. 3.4.5 Ionomers
        1. 3.4.5.1 Surlyn®
    5. 3.5 Frames
    6. 3.6 Junction Boxes
    7. 3.7 Backsheets
      1. 3.7.1 Fluorinated Polyolefins
      2. 3.7.2 Laminate Structures
    8. References
  11. 4. Polymer Processing Techniques Used in Photovoltaic Packaging and Balance of Systems (BOS) Component Fabrication
    1. 4.1 Common Polymer Processes for Photovoltaic Packaging and BOS Components
    2. 4.2 Polymer Viscosity
      1. 4.2.1 Viscosity Measurement
    3. 4.3 Lamination
    4. 4.4 Injection Molding
    5. 4.5 Adhesive Dispense
    6. References
  12. 5. Economic Theory and Photovoltaic Packaging
    1. 5.1 The First U.S. Energy Crisis
    2. 5.2 The Current Energy Crisis
    3. 5.3 Technology Development Theory and Photovoltaic Energy
    4. 5.4 Operational Optimization for Photovoltaic Companies
    5. 5.5 Photovoltaic Markets Abroad
      1. 5.5.1 China’s Solar Market
      2. 5.5.2 Saudi Arabia’s Solar Market
    6. 5.6 The U.S. Polymer Market
    7. References
  13. 6. Other Polymeric Applications in Photovoltaic Modules
    1. 6.1 Emerging Polymeric Applications
      1. 6.1.1 Soiling Behavior of Photovoltaic Modules
        1. 6.1.1.1 Considerations for Developing a Soiling Protocol
        2. 6.1.1.2 Experiments to Characterize Antisoiling Coatings
        3. 6.1.1.3 Antisoiling Coatings
      2. 6.1.2 Antiscratch Coatings
      3. 6.1.3 Antireflective Coatings
      4. 6.1.4 High Index of Refraction Polymers
    2. 6.2 Concentrated and Organic Photovoltaics
      1. 6.2.1 Lenses
      2. 6.2.2 Metallic Films
      3. 6.2.3 Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs)
      4. 6.2.4 Polymeric Photovoltaic Solar Cells
    3. References
  14. Appendix A: Conversion Factors and Common Units of Measurement
  15. Appendix B: Glossary
  16. Index

Product information

  • Title: Solar Module Packaging
  • Author(s): Michelle Poliskie
  • Release date: April 2016
  • Publisher(s): CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9781000218800