This chapter was a brief introduction to the complex science of cryptography. As with any brief introduction to a complex science, it is not intended to be complete and exhaustive. For in-depth coverage, I recommend Applied Cryptography, Second Edition, by Bruce Schneier (John Wiley & Sons, 1995), as well as other books and publications on cryptography. RSA Security’s Web site at provides a lot of information about cryptography, PKI, and related subjects.

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