According to the laws of thermodynamics, if heat is supplied to some substance, it is used in increasing the internal energy of the substance and in changing the volume of the system or

d*Q* = d*E* + *p*dϑ (5.1)

where d*Q* is the heat energy, d*E* the internal energy, and *p* d*v* the external work. Specific heat is defined by the ratio d*Q*/d*T* or the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a unit mass of the substance by an unit degree on the temperature scale. The unit mass may be 1 g or 1 kg. Generally, the unit mass is taken as one gram-mole of the substance and the unit change of temperature is 1 K, unless otherwise stated. Equation (5.1) can be written as

d*Q*/d*T* = d*E*/d*T* + d( ...

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