1  Basic Principles

Useful Relationships

Velocity of light in free space = 299 792.458 km/s

Surface area of a sphere = 4πr2

Volume of a sphere = r3

Peak value of sine wave = 1.414 × r.m.s.

e = base to natural logarithms = 2.718 28

SI Prefixes and multiplication factors



Electric current (I). The unit is the ampere (A). One ampere is the current which when flowing in two infinitely long conductors, one metre apart and of negligible cross-section, produces a force between them of 2 × 10 newtons per metre length.

Force (F). Unit the ...

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