**12 Loudspeakers**

The magnitude of the force on the coil is given by

*F* = *BIl* newtons

where *B* is the flux density (Wb/m^{2}), *I* is the current (A) and *l* is the coil length (m).

The velocity of the coil/cone is found from

*ν* = *F/Z* m/s

where *F* is the force (N) and *Z* is the mechanical impedance (mech. Ω).

To avoid distortion with large amplitude signals, and hence large coil movements, ...

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