Developments in 3D nonwovens
R.H. Gong, University of Manchester, UK
This chapter provides a critical review of the developments of three-dimensional nonwovens. Two types of nonwovens are commonly referred to as three-dimensional: one with significant thickness or high bulk; and the other, shell structures with a three-dimensional contour. High-bulk nonwovens are more developed and are commercially produced for applications such as insulation products. Three-dimensional shell structures, especially those with textile characteristics, are still in the development stage. Because of difficulties in achieving a combination of good strength and softness, nonwovens have not had much success in the general apparel field. Three-dimensional ...