Developments in 3D nonwovens

R.H. Gong,     University of Manchester, UK


This chapter provides a critical review of the developments of three-dimensional nonwovens. Two types of nonwovens are commonly referred to as three-dimensional: one with significant thickness or high bulk; and the other, shell structures with a three-dimensional contour. High-bulk nonwovens are more developed and are commercially produced for applications such as insulation products. Three-dimensional shell structures, especially those with textile characteristics, are still in the development stage. Because of difficulties in achieving a combination of good strength and softness, nonwovens have not had much success in the general apparel field. Three-dimensional ...

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