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Spin Glasses and Complexity by Charles M. Newman, Daniel L. Stein

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3

MAGNETIC SYSTEMS

Up to this point our discussion has centered on some basic concepts of condensed matter physics as viewed through the illustrative lenses of familiar systems: liquids, crystals, and glasses. We now turn to another important class of materials: magnetic systems, which we’ll regard as materials possessing properties that can be altered or manipulated through the application of an external magnetic field.

Of course, these categories overlap: a magnet can be crystalline or glassy, solid or liquid. What’s really changing is our focus on the behaviors we’d like to understand. The same piece of iron might be of interest to some investigators for its crystalline properties and to others for its magnetic ones.1

3.1 Spin

The origin of ...

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