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Spin-Outs: Creating Businesses from University Intellectual Property by Graham Richards

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The IPO

The summer of 1993 was seen by many as a window of opportunity for the flotation of companies, an initial public offering (IPO) on the London Stock Exchange. A number of smart people got companies listed on the London Stock Exchange, raising large sums of money. For research-based and loss-making high technology companies, the period was even more propitious. The relaxing of listing requirements, to a large extent pioneered by British Biotechnology, prompted several entrepreneurs to follow their example and seek a listing. It seemed that this could not go on indefinitely and this expansive period was likely to be followed by a time when the door would be firmly shut: a feeling enhanced by what seemed to us to be the rather dubious quality ...

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