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SQL Antipatterns by Bill Karwin

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What Is Normalization?

The following are the objectives of normalization:

  • To represent facts about the real world in a way that we can understand

  • To reduce storing facts redundantly and to prevent anomalous or inconsistent data

  • To support integrity constraints

images/Normalization/Normal_Forms.png
Figure 21. Progression of normal forms

Notice that improving database performance is not on this list. Normalization helps us store data correctly and avoid getting into trouble. It’s practically inevitable that a database that is not normalized becomes a mess. We find ourselves developing a lot more code to clean up inconsistent or duplicate data. We experience delays and expenses to our ...

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