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Appendix B

Matrices: An introduction to matrix algebra

B.1 Multiplication by a constant

Let us define matrices X and Y with i rows and j columns (i × j): When multiplying a matrix by a constant each matrix element has to be multiplied: Example
A matrix multiplied by a constant a = 2, gives the matrix Z: In order to load a matrix X and carry out multiplication by a constant, the following commands should be typed into R (Appendix D): The output is as follows: Adding (or subtracting) matrices can be done only for matrices of the same order. When X and Y are i × j matrices, the corresponding xij and yij elements are summed (or subtracted) to give a resulting matrix Z of the same size i × j: Example
In R:
The output is as follows:

The properties of ...

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