5. How Variables Classify Jointly: Contingency Tables

In Chapter 4, “How Variables Move Jointly: Correlation,” you saw the ways in which two continuous variables can covary: together in a direct, positive correlation, and apart in an indirect, negative correlation—or not at all when no relationship between the two exists.

This chapter explores how two nominal variables can vary together, or fail to do so. Recall from Chapter 1, “About Variables and Values,” that variables measured on a nominal scale have names (such as Ford or Toyota, Republican or Democrat, Smith or Jones) as their values. Variables ...

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