**1.1** a (if the sample means are all equal, then MS_{betw} is 0).

**1.3** c (lose 1 *df* from each group; 63 - 3 = 60).

**1.5** d (equals the *df*_{betw} + *df*_{With} = *df*_{total}; 60 + 2 = 62).

**1.7** d (null hypothesis does not consider *SS* values).

**1.9** a (for between source = 5 - 1 = 4 and for within source = 250 - 5 = 245).

**1.11** c (an *F* ratio of 1.0 implies that between- and within-groups variations are the same).

**1.13** True (mean square is a variance estimate).

**1.15** True *(F* ratio must be greater than or equal to 0).

**1.17** No (rejecting the null hypothesis in ANOVA only indicates that there is some difference among the means, not that all of the means are different).

**1.19** c ...

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