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Statistics Done Wrong by Alex Reinhart

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Chapter 3. Pseudoreplication: Choose Your Data Wisely

In a randomized controlled trial, test subjects are assigned to either experimental or control groups randomly, rather than for any systematic reason. Though the word random makes such studies sound slightly unscientific, a medical trial is not usually considered definitive unless it is a randomized controlled trial. Why? What’s so important about randomization?

Randomization prevents researchers from introducing systematic biases between test groups. Otherwise, they might assign frail patients to a less risky or less demanding treatment or assign wealthier patients to the new treatment because their insurance companies will pay for it. But randomization has no hidden biases, and it guarantees ...

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