**α risk**—The probability of committing a Type I error or the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

**Alternative hypothesis (H**_{1})—The opposite of the null hypothesis (H

_{0}).

**Analysis of variance (ANOVA)**—A statistical method that tests the significance of different factors on a variable of interest.

**Analytic study**—Leads to actions on the cause-and-effect system of a process.

**Arithmetic mean**—The balance point in a set of data that is calculated by summing the observed numerical values in a set of data and then dividing by the number of values involved.

**β risk**—The probability of committing a Type II error or the probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false.

**Bar chart**—A chart containing rectangles ...

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