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Storing Energy

Book Description

Energy Storage discusses the needs of the world’s future energy and climate change policies, covering the various types of renewable energy storage in one comprehensive volume that allows readers to conveniently compare the different technologies and find the best process that suits their particularly needs.

Each chapter is written by an expert working in the field and includes copious references for those wishing to study the subject further. Various systems are discussed, including mechanical/kinetic, thermal, electrochemical and other chemical, as well as other emerging technologies. Incorporating the advancements in storing energy as described in this book will help the people of the world further overcome the problems related to future energy and climate change.

  • Covers most types of energy storage that is being considered today, and allows comparisons to be made
  • Each chapter is written by a world expert in the field, providing the latest developments is this fast moving and vital field
  • Covers technical, environmental, social and political aspects related to the storing of energy and in particular renewable energy

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. Part A: Introduction
    1. Chapter 1: The Role of Energy Storage in Low-Carbon Energy Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. The need for new types of storage
      4. 3. Storage technologies
      5. 4. Comparing storage systems
      6. 5. Challenges for energy storage
      7. 6. Conclusions
  8. Part B: Electrical Energy Storage Techniques Gravitational/Mechanical/Thermomechanical
    1. Chapter 2: Pumped Hydroelectric Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Pros and cons
      4. 3. Historical development
      5. 4. Prospects
    2. Chapter 3: Novel Hydroelectric Storage Concepts
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Piston-in-cylinder electrical energy storage
      4. 3. Energy membrane–underground pumped hydro storage
      5. 4. Novel land-based and seabed pumped hydro configurations
      6. 5. Offshore lagoon and island storage systems
      7. 6. Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgment
    3. Chapter 4: Advanced Rail Energy Storage: Green Energy Storage for Green Energy
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Market for utility-scale energy storage
      4. 3. How much storage is needed for renewable energy?
      5. 4. Value and storage market
      6. 5. Competitive storage technologies
      7. 6. Advanced Rail Energy Storage
      8. 7. ARES operational control system
      9. 8. Advantages of ARES
      10. 9. Potential sites in the Southwestern United States
      11. 10. ARES Pilot and First Commercial Project
      12. 11. Conclusions
      13. Acknowledgment
    4. Chapter 5: Compressed Air Energy Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. CAES: modes of operation and basic principles
      4. 3. Air containment for CAES
      5. 4. System configurations and plant concepts
      6. 5. Performance metrics
      7. 6. Integrating CAES with generation or consumption
      8. 7. Concluding remarks
    5. Chapter 6: Compressed Air Energy Storage in Underground Formations
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Mode of operation
      4. 3. Plant concept
      5. 4. Underground Storage
      6. 5. Conclusions
    6. Chapter 7: Underwater Compressed Air Energy Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Storage vessels for UWCAES
      4. 3. Anchorage and installation
      5. 4. System configurations
      6. 5. Locations
      7. 6. Cost and efficiency
      8. 7. State of development
      9. 8. Concluding remarks
    7. Chapter 8: A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Storage system
      4. 3. Characteristics of a PHCA system
      5. 4. A Novel constant pressure PHCA energy storage system
      6. 5. The influences of work density
      7. 6. Energy and exergy analysis
      8. 7. Simulation analysis
    8. Chapter 9: Liquid Air Energy Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Energy and exergy densities of liquid air
      4. 3. Liquid air as both a storage medium and an efficient working fluid
      5. 4. Applications of LAES through integration
      6. 5. Technical and economic comparison of LAES with other energy storage technologies
    9. Chapter 10: Flywheels
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Physics
      4. 3. History
      5. 4. The design of modern flywheels
      6. 5. Cost and comparison with other technologies
      7. 6. Applications
      8. 7. Outlook
      9. Acknowledgments
  9. Part C: Electrochemical
    1. Chapter 11: Rechargeable Batteries with Special Reference to Lithium-Ion Batteries
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Physical fundamentals of battery storage
      4. 3. Development of lithium-ion battery storage systems
      5. 4. System integration
      6. 5. Conclusions
    2. Chapter 12: Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction and historic development
      3. 2. The function of the VRFB
      4. 3. Electrolytes of VRFB
      5. 4. VRFB versus other battery types
      6. 5. Application of VRFB
      7. 6. Recycling, environment, safety, and availability
      8. 7. Other flow batteries
  10. Part D: Thermal
    1. Chapter 13: Phase Change Materials
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Heat storage at subambient temperatures
      4. 3. Heat storage at ambient temperature
      5. 4. Heat storage at moderate temperatures
      6. 5. Heat storage at high temperatures
      7. 6. Heat transfer in PCM-based thermal storage systems
      8. 7. Gaps in knowledge
      9. 8. Outlook
    2. Chapter 14: Solar Ponds
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Types of solar ponds
      4. 3. Investment and operational cost
      5. 4. Applications of solar ponds
    3. Chapter 15: Sensible Thermal Energy Storage: Diurnal and Seasonal
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction: storing thermal energy
      3. 2. Design of the thermal storage and thermal stratification
      4. 3. Modeling of sensible heat storage
      5. 4. Second Law analysis of thermal energy storage
      6. 5. Solar thermal energy storage systems
      7. 6. Cold thermal energy storage
      8. 7. Seasonal storage
      9. 8. Concluding remarks
  11. Part E: Chemical
    1. Chapter 16: Hydrogen From Water Electrolysis
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Hydrogen as an energy vector and basic principles of water electrolysis
      4. 3. Hydrogen production via water electrolysis
      5. 4. Strategies for storing energy in hydrogen
      6. 5. Technology demonstrations utilizing hydrogen as an energy storage medium
      7. 6. Emerging technologies and outlook
    2. Chapter 17: Thermochemical Energy Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Physical fundamentals of thermochemical energy storage
      4. 3. Storage materials
      5. 4. Thermochemical storage concepts
      6. 5. Selected examples
    3. Chapter 18: Power-to-Gas
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Dynamic electrolyzer as a core part of power- to-gas plants
      4. 3. Methanation processes within power-to-gas
      5. 4. Multifunctional applications of the power- to-gas system
      6. 5. Underground gas storage in the context of power-to-gas
      7. Acknowledgment
    4. Chapter 19: Traditional Bulk Energy Storage—Coal and Underground Natural Gas and Oil Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Coal
      4. 3. Oil
      5. 4. Natural gas storage
      6. 5. Conclusions
    5. Chapter 20: Larger Scale Hydrogen Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Hydrogen economy—from the original idea to today’s concept
      3. 2. Why use hydrogen storage to compensate for fluctuating renewables?
      4. 3. Hydrogen in the chemical industry
      5. 4. Options for large-scale underground gas storage
      6. 5. Underground hydrogen storage in detail
  12. Part F: Integration
    1. Chapter 21: Energy Storage Integration
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Energy policy and markets
      4. 3. Energy storage planning
      5. 4. Energy storage operation
      6. 5. Demonstration projects
      7. 6. Integrated modeling approach
    2. Chapter 22: Off-Grid Energy Storage
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction: the challenges of energy storage
      3. 2. Why is off-grid energy important?
      4. 3. Battery technologies and applications
      5. 4. Dealing with renewable variability
      6. 5. The emergence of minigrids and microgrids
      7. 6. Energy storage in island contexts
      8. 7. Bring clean energy to the poor
      9. 8. The way forward: cost–structure evolution
      10. 9. International examples
      11. 10. Conclusions
  13. Part G: International Issues and the Politics of Introducing Renewable Energy Schemes
    1. Chapter 23: Energy Storage Worldwide
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction: the energy storage challenge
      3. 2. Barriers to development and deployment
      4. 3. Case studies
      5. 4. Lessons for the development of storage
      6. 5. Conclusions
    2. Chapter 24: Storing Energy in China—An Overview
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Imperativeness and applications
      4. 3. Technical and development status
      5. 4. Summary and prospects
      6. 5. Conclusions and remarks
      7. Acknowledgment
    3. Chapter 25: The Politics of Investing in Sustainable Energy Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 1. Introduction
      3. 2. Sustainable energy systems policy and politics
      4. 3. Implications for investment in sustainable energy systems
      5. 4. Technology selection
      6. 5. Transition
      7. 6. Global implications
      8. 7. The circular economy
      9. 8. Conclusions
  14. Subject Index