Chapter 19

From Cyber Terrorism to State Actors’ Covert Cyber Operations

Jan Kallberg and Bhavani Thuraisingham


During the first 20 years of the Internet era there was a widespread fear of threats from the Internet, but in reality it was fairly secure. The limited abilities and resources of the early attackers contained the threat to criminal activity and marginal damage. Recent advancements in client computer security, in conjunction with the impact of time and Internet maturity, have created a population at ease and with and trusting of the Internet. In reality, the Internet has a reverse trajectory for its security, where the Internet has become more unsafe over time. The threat no longer engulfs just individuals and businesses, ...

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