CHAPTER 7
Strategy and Statistics in Clinical Trials
©
2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 77
“God, therefore, stands in no need of general ideas; that is to say, he
is never sensible of the necessity of collecting a considerable number
of analogous objects under the same form for greater convenience in
thinking
. …
General ideas are no proof of the strength, but rather of the
insufficiency of the human intellect; for there are in nature no
beings exactly alike, no things precisely identical, nor any rules
indiscriminately and alike applicable to several objects at once. The
chief merit of general ideas is that they enable the human mind to pass
a rapid judgment on a great many objects at once; but, on the other
hand, the notions they convey are never otherwise than incomplete,
and they always cause the mind to lose as much in accuracy as it gains
in comprehensiveness.”
—Alexis de Tocqueville
1
From Description to Testing:
A Beginning
Statistics, “an imperfect but necessary expedient”
Our psychology and descriptive statistics
ANOVA: analyzing variation to compare means
Statistical and clinical thinking
Significance: a hint of things to come using a diagnostic device
Sensitivity
Specificity
Type I Error and Type II Error in diagnostic accuracy
CONTENTS
1
de Toqueville, A. Democracy in America (Volume 2, Chapter 2). 1840. Project Gutenberg, 2006.
netLibrary. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/816/816-h/816-h.htm.

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