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Superconductors in the Power Grid

Book Description

Superconductors offer high throughput with low electric losses and have the potential to transform the electric power grid. Transmission networks incorporating cables of this type could, for example, deliver more power and enable substantial energy savings. Superconductors in the Power Grid: Materials and Applications provides an overview of superconductors and their applications in power grids. Sections address the design and engineering of cable systems and fault current limiters and other emerging applications for superconductors in the power grid, as well as case studies of industrial applications of superconductors in the power grid.

  • Expert editor from highly respected US government-funded research centre
  • Unique focus on superconductors in the power grid
  • Comprehensive coverage

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Related titles
  5. Copyright
  6. List of contributors
  7. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  8. Dedication
  9. Preface
  10. Acknowledgements
  11. Part One. Fundamentals and materials
    1. 1. The power grid and the impact of high-temperature superconductor technology: an overview
      1. 1.1. Introduction
      2. 1.2. Overview of the electric power grid
      3. 1.3. Elements of the electric power grid
      4. 1.4. Superconductivity
      5. 1.5. Status and prospects of superconductor power equipment
      6. 1.6. Conclusion and future trends
    2. 2. Fundamentals of superconductivity
      1. 2.1. History
      2. 2.2. Meissner effect
      3. 2.3. London equations and magnetic penetration depth
      4. 2.4. Critical currents in type I superconductors
      5. 2.5. Magnetization in type I superconductors
      6. 2.6. Intermediate state
      7. 2.7. Coherence length
      8. 2.8. Type II superconductors
      9. 2.9. The mixed state: Hc1 and Hc2
      10. 2.10. Reversible magnetization in type II superconductors
      11. 2.11. Critical currents and irreversible magnetic properties of type II superconductors
      12. 2.12. Entropy and free energy
      13. 2.13. Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) theory
      14. 2.14. Low-temperature metallic superconductors (LTS): NbTi, Nb3Sn, and MgB2
      15. 2.15. High-temperature superconductivity
      16. 2.16. Comparison of HTS to LTS properties and summary of fundamental parameters
      17. 2.17. Practical superconductors
    3. 3. Bismuth-based oxide (BSCCO) high-temperature superconducting wires for power grid applications: properties and fabrication
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. Properties of bismuth-based oxide (BSCCO)
      3. 3.3. Fabrication of BSCCO superconducting cables and wires
      4. 3.4. Applications of BSCCO superconducting cables and wires
      5. 3.5. Future trends
    4. 4. Second-generation (2G) coated high-temperature superconducting cables and wires for power grid applications
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Second-generation (2G) materials and wire design
      3. 4.3. 2G wire fabrication approaches
      4. 4.4. 2G manufacturers and wire properties
      5. 4.5. Applications (brief review of major applications for 2G wire)
      6. 4.6. Conclusion and future trends
      7. 4.7. Sources of further information and advice
  12. Part Two. High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology
    1. 5. High-temperature superconducting (HTS) AC cables for power grid applications
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. High-temperature superconducting (HTS) AC cable design
      3. 5.3. AC loss of HTS cables
      4. 5.4. Terminations
      5. 5.5. Cryogenic refrigeration systems for HTS AC cables
      6. 5.6. Principles of fault-current-limiting HTS AC cables
      7. 5.7. Inductance and capacitance
      8. 5.8. Some major HTS AC cable projects
      9. 5.9. Conclusion: commercial prospects for HTS AC cable
    2. 6. Using superconducting DC cables to improve the efficiency of electricity transmission and distribution (T&D) networks: an overview
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Superconducting cable systems: key elements
      3. 6.3. Superconducting materials
      4. 6.4. Cable conductors and electrical insulation
      5. 6.5. Cable cryostat
      6. 6.6. Cable terminations and joints
      7. 6.7. Cryogenic machine
      8. 6.8. DC superconductive cable system configurations
      9. 6.9. Power dissipation sources in the superconducting system
      10. 6.10. Power losses from AC ripples
      11. 6.11. Comparing power dissipation in a DC superconducting system to a conventional system
      12. 6.12. Opportunities for DC Superconducting Cables
      13. 6.13. Conclusions
    3. 7. High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables cooled by helium gas
      1. 7.1. History of superconducting cables
      2. 7.2. Introduction to GHe-cooled superconducting cables
      3. 7.3. Potential applications of GHe cables
      4. 7.4. Technical issues pertinent to GHe-cooled high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables
      5. 7.5. Dielectric design aspects of helium gas-cooled HTS cables
      6. 7.6. Design aspects for GHe-cooled HTS cable terminations
      7. 7.7. Cryogenic helium circulation systems
      8. 7.8. Ongoing GHe-cooled HTS cable projects
      9. 7.9. Summary
    4. 8. High-temperature superconducting cable cooling systems for power grid applications
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Thermal loads
      3. 8.3. Topology of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable cooling circuits
      4. 8.4. Coolant selection
      5. 8.5. Refrigeration system overview
      6. 8.6. Types of refrigeration systems
      7. 8.7. Recent installations
      8. 8.8. Future trends
      9. 8.9. Conclusions
  13. Part Three. Applications
    1. 9. High-temperature superconducting fault current limiters (FCLs) for power grid applications
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Utility requirements for fault-current-limiting parameters
      3. 9.3. Designs and operation principles of various types of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs)
      4. 9.4. Status of fault current limiters development and implementation
      5. 9.5. Comparison of different fault current limiters
      6. 9.6. Applicability of superconducting fault current limiters in power systems
      7. 9.7. Future trends
      8. 9.8. Sources of further information
    2. 10. High-temperature superconducting motors and generators for power grid applications
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Principles of superconducting (SC) motors and generators
      3. 10.3. Types of SC motors and generators
      4. 10.4. Prototypes built to date
      5. 10.5. SC wire and cryorefrigeration requirements
      6. 10.6. Conclusion and future trends
    3. 11. High-temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for power grid applications
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. Construction of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES): maximising energy storage and minimising cost
      3. 11.3. Materials
      4. 11.4. Competing technologies
      5. 11.5. Markets
      6. 11.6. Future developments
    4. 12. High-temperature superconducting (HTS) transformers for power grid applications
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. Transformers and the electricity grid
      3. 12.3. A brief history of superconducting transformers
      4. 12.4. High-temperature superconducting (HTS) transformers – general principles
      5. 12.5. AC loss in transformer windings
      6. 12.6. Cryogenic systems for HTS transformers
      7. 12.7. Challenges for HTS transformers
      8. 12.8. The HTS transformer value proposition – total cost of ownership (TCO)
      9. 12.9. Conclusions
    5. 13. Implementing high-temperature superconductors for the power grid in practice: the case of China
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Research and development of superconductors in power in China
      3. 13.3. The 10 kV superconducting power substation in Baiyin City, Gansu ProvincekV superconducting power substation in Baiyin City, Gansu Province
      4. 13.4. Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) and the 360 m/10 kA superconducting DC power cable (Xiao et al., 2012b; Xin et al., 2010, 2013)kA superconducting DC power cable (Xiao et al., 2012b; Xin et al., 2010, 2013)
      5. 13.5. Superconducting magnetic energy storage
      6. 13.6. Future trends
      7. 13.7. Sources of further information and advice
  14. Index