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Switching Power Converters, 2nd Edition

Book Description

An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks.

The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as new and/or improved chapters on:

  • Thermal management and reliability
  • Intelligent power modules
  • AC/DC and DC/AC current source converters
  • Multilevel converters
  • Use of IPM within a "network of switches" concept
  • Power semiconductors
  • Matrix converters
  • Practical aspects in building power converters

Providing the latest research and development information, along with numerous examples of successful home appliance, aviation, naval, automotive electronics, industrial motor drive, and grid interface for renewable energy products, this edition highlights advancements in packaging technologies, tackles the advent of hybrid circuits able to incorporate control and power stages within the same package, and examines design for reliability from the system level perspective.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Author
  9. Chapter 1 Introduction to Medium- and High-Power Switching Converters
    1. 1.1 Market for Medium- and High-Power Converters
      1. 1.1.1 Technology Status
      2. 1.1.2 Transportation Electrification Systems
        1. 1.1.2.1 Automotive
        2. 1.1.2.2 Aviation
        3. 1.1.2.3 Railways
        4. 1.1.2.4 Marine Power Systems
      3. 1.1.3 Traditional Industrial Applications
        1. 1.1.3.1 Motor Drives
        2. 1.1.3.2 Grid-Tied Power Supplies
        3. 1.1.3.3 Medium Voltage
    2. 1.2 Book Coverage
    3. 1.3 Adjustable Speed Drives
      1. 1.3.1 AC/DC Converter
      2. 1.3.2 Intermediate Circuit
      3. 1.3.3 DC Capacitor Bank
      4. 1.3.4 Soft-Charge Circuit
      5. 1.3.5 DC Reactor
      6. 1.3.6 Brake Circuit
      7. 1.3.7 Three-Phase Inverter
      8. 1.3.8 Protection Circuits
      9. 1.3.9 Sensors
      10. 1.3.10 Motor Connection
      11. 1.3.11 Controller
    4. 1.4 Grid Interfaces or Distributed Generation
      1. 1.4.1 Grid Harmonics
      2. 1.4.2 Power Factor
      3. 1.4.3 DC Current Injection
      4. 1.4.4 Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Inference
      5. 1.4.5 Frequency and Voltage Variations
      6. 1.4.6 Maximum Power Connected at Low-Voltage Grid
    5. 1.5 Multiconverter Power Electronic Systems
    6. 1.6 Conclusion
    7. References
  10. PART I Conventional Power Converters
    1. Chapter 2 High-Power Semiconductor Devices
      1. 2.1 A View on the Power Semiconductor Market
      2. 2.2 Power MOSFETs
        1. 2.2.1 Operation
        2. 2.2.2 Control
      3. 2.3 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors
        1. 2.3.1 Operation
        2. 2.3.2 Control, Gate Drivers
          1. 2.3.2.1 Requirements
          2. 2.3.2.2 Optimal Design of the Gate Resistor
        3. 2.3.3 Protection
      4. 2.4 Power Loss Estimation
      5. 2.5 Active Gate Drivers
      6. 2.6 Gate Turn-off Thyristors (GTOs)
      7. 2.7 Advanced Power Devices
        1. 2.7.1 Specialty Devices
          1. 2.7.1.1 IGCT
          2. 2.7.1.2 IGBT-RC
          3. 2.7.1.3 IGBT-RB
        2. 2.7.2 High-Frequency, High-Voltage Devices
        3. 2.7.3 Using New Substrate Materials (SiC, GaN, and so on)
      8. 2.8 Datasheet Information
      9. Problems
      10. References
    2. Chapter 3 Basic Three-Phase Inverters
      1. 3.1 High-Power Devices Operated as Simple Switches
      2. 3.2 Inverter Leg with Inductive Load Operation
      3. 3.3 What Is a PWM Algorithm?
      4. 3.4 Basic Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverter: Operation and Functions
      5. 3.5 Performance Indices: Definitions and Terms Used in Different Countries
        1. 3.5.1 Frequency Analysis
        2. 3.5.2 Modulation Index for Three-Phase Converters
        3. 3.5.3 Performance Indices
          1. 3.5.3.1 Content in Fundamental (z)
          2. 3.5.3.2 Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Coefficient
          3. 3.5.3.3 Harmonic Current Factor (HCF)
          4. 3.5.3.4 Current Distortion Factor
      6. 3.6 Direct Calculation of Harmonic Spectrum from Inverter Waveforms
        1. 3.6.1 Decomposition in Quasi-Rectangular Waveforms
        2. 3.6.2 Vectorial Method
      7. 3.7 Preprogrammed PWM for Three-Phase Inverters
        1. 3.7.1 Preprogrammed PWM for Single-Phase Inverter
        2. 3.7.2 Preprogrammed PWM for Three-Phase Inverter
        3. 3.7.3 Binary-Programmed PWM
      8. 3.8 Modeling a Three-Phase Inverter with Switching Functions
      9. 3.9 Braking Leg in Power Converters for Motor Drives
      10. 3.10 DC Bus Capacitor within an AC/DC/AC Power Converter
      11. 3.11 Conclusion
      12. Problems
      13. References
    3. Chapter 4 Carrier-Based Pulse Width Modulation and Operation Limits
      1. 4.1 Carrier-Based Pulse Width Modulation Algorithms: Historical Importance
      2. 4.2 Carrier-Based PWM Algorithms with Improved Reference
      3. 4.3 PWM Used within Volt/Hertz Drives: Choice of Number of Pulses Based on the Desired Current Harmonic Factor
        1. 4.3.1 Operation in the Low-Frequencies Range (Below Nominal Frequency)
        2. 4.3.2 High Frequencies (>60 Hz)
      4. 4.4 Implementation of Harmonic Reduction with Carrier PWM
      5. 4.5 Limits of Operation: Minimum Pulse Width
        1. 4.5.1 Avoiding Pulse Dropping by Harmonic Injection
      6. 4.6 Limits of Operation
        1. 4.6.1 Deadtime
        2. 4.6.2 Zero Current Clamping
        3. 4.6.3 Overmodulation
          1. 4.6.3.1 Voltage Gain Linearization
      7. 4.7 Conclusion
      8. Problems
      9. References
    4. Chapter 5 Vectorial PWM for Basic Three-Phase Inverters
      1. 5.1 Review of Space Vector Theory
        1. 5.1.1 History and Evolution of the Concept
        2. 5.1.2 Theory: Vectorial Transforms and Advantages
          1. 5.1.2.1 Clarke Transform
          2. 5.1.2.2 Park Transform
        3. 5.1.3 Application to Three-Phase Control Systems
      2. 5.2 Vectorial Analysis of the Three-Phase Inverter
        1. 5.2.1 Mathematical Derivation of Current Space Vector Trajectory in Complex Planes for Six-Step Operation (with Resistive and Resistive-Inductive Loads)
        2. 5.2.2 Definition of Flux of a (Voltage) Vector and Ideal Flux Trajectory
      3. 5.3 SVM Theory: Derivation of Time Intervals Associated to Active and Zero States by Averaging
      4. 5.4 Adaptive SVM: DC Ripple Compensation
      5. 5.5 Link to Vector Control: Different Forms and Expressions of Time Interval Equations in (d, q) Coordinate System
      6. 5.6 Definition of Switching Reference Function
      7. 5.7 Definition of Switching Sequence
        1. 5.7.1 Continuous Reference Function: Different Methods
        2. 5.7.2 Discontinuous Reference Function for Reduced Switching Loss
      8. 5.8 Comparison between Different Vectorial PWM
        1. 5.8.1 Loss Performance
        2. 5.8.2 Comparison of Total Harmonic Distortion/HCF
      9. 5.9 Overmodulation for SVM
      10. 5.10 Volt-per-Hertz Control of PWM Inverters
        1. 5.10.1 Low-Frequency Operation Mode
        2. 5.10.2 High-Frequency Operation Mode
      11. 5.11 Improving the Transient Response in High-Speed Converters
      12. 5.12 Conclusion
      13. Problems
      14. References
    5. Chapter 6 Practical Aspects in Building Three-Phase Power Converters
      1. 6.1 Selection of Power Devices in a Three-Phase Inverter
        1. 6.1.1 Motor Drives
          1. 6.1.1.1 Load Characteristics
          2. 6.1.1.2 Maximum Current Available
          3. 6.1.1.3 Maximum Apparent Power
          4. 6.1.1.4 Maximum Active (Load) Power
        2. 6.1.2 Grid Applications
      2. 6.2 Protection
        1. 6.2.1 Overcurrent
        2. 6.2.2 Fuses
        3. 6.2.3 Overtemperature
        4. 6.2.4 Overvoltage
        5. 6.2.5 Snubber Circuits
          1. 6.2.5.1 Theory
          2. 6.2.5.2 Component Selection
          3. 6.2.5.3 Undeland Snubber Circuit
          4. 6.2.5.4 Regenerative Snubber Circuits for Very Large Power
          5. 6.2.5.5 Resonant Snubbers
          6. 6.2.5.6 Active Snubbering
        6. 6.2.6 Gate Driver Faults
      3. 6.3 System Protection Management
      4. 6.4 Reduction of Common Mode EMI through Inverter Techniques
      5. 6.5 Typical Building Structures of the Conventional Inverter Depending on the Power Level
        1. 6.5.1 Packages for Power Semiconductor Devices
        2. 6.5.2 Converter Packaging
        3. 6.5.3 Enclosures
      6. 6.6 Auxiliary Power
        1. 6.6.1 Requirements
        2. 6.6.2 IC for Power Supplies
        3. 6.6.3 Operation of a Flyback Power Converter
      7. 6.7 Conclusion
      8. Problems
      9. References
    6. Chapter 7 Thermal Management and Reliability
      1. 7.1 Thermal Management
        1. 7.1.1 Theory
        2. 7.1.2 Transient Thermal Impedance
      2. 7.2 Theory of Reliability and Lifetime—Definitions
      3. 7.3 Failure and Lifetime
        1. 7.3.1 System Failure Rate
        2. 7.3.2 Component Failure Rate
        3. 7.3.3 Failure Rate for Diverse Components Used in Power Electronics
        4. 7.3.4 Failure Modes for a Power Semiconductor Device
        5. 7.3.5 Wear-Out Mechanisms in Power Semiconductors
      4. 7.4 Lifetime Calculation and Modeling
        1. 7.4.1 Problem Setting
        2. 7.4.2 Accelerated Tests for Electronic Equipment
          1. 7.4.2.1 Using the Activation Energy Method
          2. 7.4.2.2 Temperature Cycling
          3. 7.4.2.3 Accelerated Tests for Power Cycling
        3. 7.4.3 Modeling with Physics of Failure
      5. 7.5 Standards and Software Tools
        1. 7.5.1 Standards
        2. 7.5.2 Software Tools
          1. 7.5.2.1 Tools Derived from Theory of Reliability
          2. 7.5.2.2 Tools Derived from Microelectronics
          3. 7.5.2.3 Power Electronics Specifics
      6. 7.6 Factory Reliability Testing of Semiconductors
      7. 7.7 Design for Reliability
      8. 7.8 Conclusion
      9. References
    7. Chapter 8 Implementation of Pulse Width Modulation Algorithms
      1. 8.1 Analog Pulse Width Modulation Controllers
      2. 8.2 Mixed-Mode Motor Controller ICs
      3. 8.3 Digital Structures with Counters: FPGA Implementation
        1. 8.3.1 Principle of Digital PWM Controllers
        2. 8.3.2 Bus Compatible Digital PWM Interfaces
        3. 8.3.3 FPGA Implementation of Space Vector Modulation Controllers
        4. 8.3.4 Deadtime Digital Controllers
      4. 8.4 Markets for General-Purpose and Dedicated Digital Processors
        1. 8.4.1 History of Using Microprocessors/ Microcontrollers in Power Converter Control
        2. 8.4.2 DSPs Used in Power Converter Control
        3. 8.4.3 Parallel Processing in Multiprocessor Structures
      5. 8.5 Software Implementation in Low-Cost Microcontrollers
        1. 8.5.1 Software Manipulation of Counter Timing
        2. 8.5.2 Calculation of Time Interval Constants
      6. 8.6 Microcontrollers with Power Converter Interfaces
      7. 8.7 Motor Control Coprocessors
      8. 8.8 Using the Event Manager within Texas Instrument’s DSPs
        1. 8.8.1 Event Manager Structure
        2. 8.8.2 Software Implementation of Carrier-Based PWM
        3. 8.8.3 Software Implementation of SVM
        4. 8.8.4 Hardware Implementation of SVM
        5. 8.8.5 Deadtime
        6. 8.8.6 Individual PWM Channels
      9. 8.9 Using Flash Memories
      10. 8.10 About Resolution and Accuracy of PWM Implementation
      11. 8.11 Conclusion
      12. References
    8. Chapter 9 Practical Aspects in Closed-Loop Control
      1. 9.1 Role, Schematics
      2. 9.2 Current Measurement—Synchronization with PWM
        1. 9.2.1 Shunt Resistor
        2. 9.2.2 Hall Effect Sensors
        3. 9.2.3 Current Sensing Transformer
        4. 9.2.4 Synchronization with PWM
      3. 9.3 Current Sampling Rate—Oversampling
      4. 9.4 Current Control in (a,b,c) Coordinates
      5. 9.5 Current Transforms (3->2)—Software Calculation of Transforms
      6. 9.6 Current Control in (d, q)—Models—PI Calibration
      7. 9.7 Anti-Wind-Up Protection—Output Limitation and Range Definition
      8. 9.8 Conclusion
      9. References
    9. Chapter 10 Intelligent Power Modules
      1. 10.1 Market and Technology Considerations
        1. 10.1.1 History
        2. 10.1.2 Advantages and Drawbacks
        3. 10.1.3 IGBT Chip
        4. 10.1.4 Gate Driver
        5. 10.1.5 Packaging
        6. 10.1.6 Other Approaches
      2. 10.2 Review of IPM Devices Available
      3. 10.3 Use of IPM Devices
        1. 10.3.1 Local Power Supplies
        2. 10.3.2 Clamping the Regenerative Energy
      4. References
  11. PART II Other Topologies
    1. Chapter 11 Resonant Three-Phase Converters
      1. 11.1 Reducing Switching Losses through Resonance versus Advanced PWM Devices
      2. 11.2 Do We Still Get Advantages from Resonant High Power Converters?
      3. 11.3 Zero Voltage Transition of IGBT Devices
        1. 11.3.1 Power Semiconductor Devices under Zero Voltage Switching
        2. 11.3.2 Step-Down Conversion
        3. 11.3.3 Step-Up Power Transfer
        4. 11.3.4 Bi-Directional Power Transfer
      4. 11.4 Zero Current Transition of IGBT Devices
        1. 11.4.1 Power Semiconductor Devices under Zero Current Switching
        2. 11.4.2 Step-Down Conversion
        3. 11.4.3 Step-Up Conversion
      5. 11.5 Possible Topologies of Quasi-Resonant Converters
        1. 11.5.1 Pole Voltage
        2. 11.5.2 Resonant DC Bus
      6. 11.6 Special PWM for Three-Phase Resonant Converters
      7. Problems
      8. References
    2. Chapter 12 Component-Minimized Three-Phase Power Converters
      1. 12.1 Solutions for Reduction of Number of Components
        1. 12.1.1 New Inverter Topologies
        2. 12.1.2 Direct Converters
      2. 12.2 B4 Inverter
        1. 12.2.1 Vectorial Analysis of the B4 Inverter
        2. 12.2.2 Definition of PWM Algorithms for the B4 Inverter
        3. 12.2.3 Influence of DC Voltage Variations and Method for Their Compensation
      3. 12.3 Two-Leg Converter Used in Feeding a Two-Phase IM …
      4. 12.4 Z-Source Inverter
      5. 12.5 Conclusion
      6. References
    3. Chapter 13 AC/DC Grid Interface Based on the Three-Phase Voltage Source Converter
      1. 13.1 Particularities—Control Objectives—Active Power Control
      2. 13.2 Meaning of PWM in the Control System
        1. 13.2.1 Single-Switch Applications
        2. 13.2.2 Six-Switch Converters
        3. 13.2.3 Topologies with Current Injection Devices
      3. 13.3 Closed-Loop Current Control Methods
        1. 13.3.1 Introduction
        2. 13.3.2 PI Current Loop
        3. 13.3.3 Transient Response Times
        4. 13.3.4 Limitation of the (vd,vq) Voltages
        5. 13.3.5 Minimum Time Current Control
        6. 13.3.6 Cross-Coupling Terms
        7. 13.3.7 Application of the Whole Available Voltage on the d-Axis
        8. 13.3.8 Switch Table and Hysteresis Control
        9. 13.3.9 Phase Current Tracking Methods
          1. 13.3.9.1 P-I-S controller
          2. 13.3.9.2 Feed-Forward Controller
      4. 13.4 Grid Synchronization
      5. Problems
      6. References
    4. Chapter 14 Parallel and Interleaved Power Converters
      1. 14.1 Comparison between Converters Built of High-Power Devices and Solutions Based on Multiple Parallel Lower-Power Devices
      2. 14.2 Hardware Constraints in Paralleling IGBTs
      3. 14.3 Gate Control Designs for Equal Current Sharing
      4. 14.4 dvantages and Disadvantages of Paralleling Inverter Legs with Respect to Using Parallel Devices
        1. 14.4.1 Inter-Phase Reactors
        2. 14.4.2 Control System
        3. 14.4.3 Converter Control Solutions
        4. 14.4.4 Current Control
        5. 14.4.5 Small-Signal Modeling for (d, q) Control in a Parallel Converter System
        6. 14.4.6 (d, q) versus (d, q, 0) Control
      5. 14.5 Interleaved Operation of Power Converters
      6. 14.6 Circulating Currents
      7. 14.7 Selection of the PWM Algorithm
      8. 14.8 System Controller
      9. 14.9 Conclusion
      10. Problems
      11. References
    5. Chapter 15 AC/DC and DC/AC Current Source Converters
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 Current Commutation
      3. 15.3 Using Switching Functions to Define Operation
      4. 15.4 PWM Control
        1. 15.4.1 Trapezoidal Modulation
        2. 15.4.2 Harmonic Elimination Programmed Modulation
        3. 15.4.3 Sinusoidal Modulation
        4. 15.4.4 Space Vector Modulation
      5. 15.5 Optimization of PWM Algorithms
        1. 15.5.1 Minimum Squared Error
        2. 15.5.2 Circular Corona
        3. 15.5.3 Reducing the Low Harmonics from the Geometrical Locus
        4. 15.5.4 Comparative Results
      6. 15.6 Resonance in the AC-Side of the CSI Converter-Filter Assembly
      7. 15.7 Conclusions
      8. References
    6. Chapter 16 AC/AC Matrix Converters as a 9-Switch Topology
      1. 16.1 Background
      2. 16.2 Implementation of the Power Switch
      3. 16.3 Current Commutation
      4. 16.4 Clamping the Reactive Energy
      5. 16.5 PWM Algorithms
        1. 16.5.1 Sinusoidal Carrier-Based PWM
        2. 16.5.2 Space Vector Modulation Considering All Possible Switching Vectors
          1. 16.5.2.1 Selection of the Closest Rotating and Stationary Vectors
          2. 16.5.2.2 Definition of Time Intervals
        3. 16.5.3 Space Vector Modulation Considering Stationary Vectors Only
        4. 16.5.4 Indirect Matrix Converter (Sparse Converter)
        5. 16.5.5 Implementation of PWM Control
        6. 16.6 Conclusion
      6. References
    7. Chapter 17 Multilevel Converters
      1. 17.1 Principle and Hardware Topologies
        1. 17.1.1 H-Bridge Modules
        2. 17.1.2 Flying Capacitor Multilevel Converter
        3. 17.1.3 Diode-Clamped Multilevel Converter
        4. 17.1.4 Combination Converters
      2. 17.2 Design and Rating Considerations
        1. 17.2.1 Semiconductor Ratings
        2. 17.2.2 Passive Filters
      3. 17.3 PWM Algorithms
        1. 17.3.1 Principle
        2. 17.3.2 Sinusoidal PWM
        3. 17.3.3 Space Vector Modulation
        4. 17.3.4 Harmonic Elimination
      4. 17.4 Application Specifics
        1. 17.4.1 HVDC Lines
        2. 17.4.2 FACTS
        3. 17.4.3 Motor Drives
      5. References
    8. Chapter 18 Use of IPM within a “Network of Switches” Concept
      1. 18.1 Grid Interface for Extended Power Range
      2. 18.2 Matrix Converter Made Up of VSI Power Modules
        1. 18.2.1 Conventional Matrix Converter Packaged with VSI Modules
        2. 18.2.2 Dyadic Matrix Converter with VSI Modules
      3. 18.3 Multilevel Converter Made Up of Multiple Power Modules
      4. 18.4 New Topology Built of Power Modules and Its Applications
        1. 18.4.1 Cyclo-Converters
        2. 18.4.2 Control System
        3. 18.4.3 PWM Generator
      5. 18.5 Generalized Vector Transform
      6. 18.6 IPM in IGBT-Based AC/AC Direct Converters Built of Current Source Inverter Modules
        1. 18.6.1 Hardware Development
        2. 18.6.2 Product Requirements
        3. 18.6.3 Performance
      7. 18.7 Using MATLAB-Based Multimillion FFT for Analysis of Direct AC/AC Converters
        1. 18.7.1 Introduction to Harmonic Analysis of Direct or Matrix Converters
        2. 18.7.2 Parameter Selection
        3. 18.7.3 FFT in MATLAB
        4. 18.7.4 Analysis of a Direct Converter
        5. 18.7.5 Automation of Multipoint THD and HCF Analysis
        6. 18.7.6 Comments on Computer Performance
      8. References
  12. Index