Book description
The design of Switching Power Supplies has become one of the most crucial aspects of power electronics, particularly in the explosive market for portable devices. Unfortunately, this seemingly simple mechanism is actually one of the most complex and underestimated processes in Power Electronics. Switching power conversion involves several engineering disciplines: Semiconductor Physics, Thermal Management, Control Loop theory, Magnetics etc, and all these come into play eventually, in ways hard for nonexperts to grasp.This book grows out of decades of the author’s experience designing commercial power supplies. Although his formal education was in physics, he learned the hard way what it took to succeed in designing power supplies for companies like Siemens and National Semiconductor. His passion for power supplies and his empathy for the practicing or aspiring power conversion engineer is evident on every page.
* The most comprehensive study available of the theoretical and practical aspects of controlling and measuring Electromagnetic Interference in switching power supplies, including input filter instability considerations.
* Stepbystep and iterative approach for calculating highfrequency losses in forward converter transformers, including Proximity losses based on Dowell's equations.
* Thorough, yet uniquely simple design flowchart for building DCDC converters and their magnetic components under typical wideinput supply conditions
* Stepbystep, solved examples for stabilizing control loops of all three major topologies, using either transconductance or conventional operational amplifiers, and either currentmode or voltagemode control.
Table of contents
 Front cover
 Title page
 Copyright Page
 Contents (1/2)
 Contents (2/2)
 Preface (1/2)
 Preface (2/2)
 Acknowledgements

CHAPTER 1  The Principles of Switching Power Conversion
 Introduction
 Overview and Basic Terminology (1/4)
 Overview and Basic Terminology (2/4)
 Overview and Basic Terminology (3/4)
 Overview and Basic Terminology (4/4)
 Understanding the Inductor (1/5)
 Understanding the Inductor (2/5)
 Understanding the Inductor (3/5)
 Understanding the Inductor (4/5)
 Understanding the Inductor (5/5)
 Evolution of Switching Topologies (1/4)
 Evolution of Switching Topologies (2/4)
 Evolution of Switching Topologies (3/4)
 Evolution of Switching Topologies (4/4)

CHAPTER 2  DCDC Converter Design and Magnetics
 DC Transfer Functions
 The DC Level and the “Swing” of the Inductor Current Waveform
 De.ning the AC, DC, and Peak Currents
 Understanding the AC, DC and Peak Currents
 Defining the “Worstcase” Input Voltage
 The Current Ripple Ratio ‘r’
 Relating r to the Inductance
 The Optimum Value of r
 Do We Mean Inductor? Or Inductance?
 How Inductance and Inductor Size Depend on Frequency
 How Inductance and Inductor Size Depend on Load Current
 How Vendors Specify the Current Rating of an Offtheshelf Inductor and How to Select It
 What Is the Inductor Current Rating We Need to Consider for a Given Application?
 The Spread and Tolerance of the Current Limit
 Worked Example (1) (1/3)
 Worked Example (1) (2/3)
 Worked Example (1) (3/3)
 Worked Examples (2, 3, and 4) (1/2)
 Worked Examples (2, 3, and 4) (2/2)
 Worked Example (5)—When Not to Increase the Number of Turns
 Worked Example (6)—Characterizing an Offtheshelf Inductor in a Specific Application (1/2)
 Worked Example (6)—Characterizing an Offtheshelf Inductor in a Specific Application (2/2)
 Calculating the “Other” Worstcase Stresses (1/2)
 Calculating the “Other” Worstcase Stresses (2/2)

CHAPTER 3  Offline Converter Design and Magnetics
 Flyback Converter Magnetics (1/5)
 Flyback Converter Magnetics (2/5)
 Flyback Converter Magnetics (3/5)
 Flyback Converter Magnetics (4/5)
 Flyback Converter Magnetics (5/5)
 Forward Converter Magnetics (1/5)
 Forward Converter Magnetics (2/5)
 Forward Converter Magnetics (3/5)
 Forward Converter Magnetics (4/5)
 Forward Converter Magnetics (5/5)
 CHAPTER 4  The Topology FAQ

CHAPTER 5  Conduction and Switching Losses
 Switching a Resistive Load
 Switching an Inductive Load
 Switching Losses and Conduction Loss
 A Simplified Model of the Mosfet for Studying Inductive Switching Losses
 The Parasitic Capacitances Expressed in an Alternate System
 Gate Threshold Voltage
 The Turnon Transition
 The Turnoff Transition
 Gate Charge Factors
 Worked Example
 Applying the Switching Loss Analysis to Switching Topologies
 Worstcase Input Voltage for Switching Losses
 How Switching Losses Vary with the Parasitic Capacitances
 Optimizing Driver Capability visàvis Mosfet Characteristics
 CHAPTER 6  Printed Circuit Board Layout

CHAPTER 7  Feedback Loop Analysis and Stability
 Transfer Functions, Time Constant and the Forcing Function
 Understanding ‘e’ and Plotting Curves on Log Scales
 Time Domain and Frequency Domain Analysis
 Complex Representation
 Nonrepetitive Stimuli
 The splane
 Laplace Transform
 Disturbances and the Role of Feedback
 Transfer Function of the RC Filter
 The Integrator Opamp (“poleatzero” filter)
 Mathematics in the Log Plane
 Transfer Function of the LC Filter
 Summary of Transfer Functions of Passive Filters
 Poles and Zeros
 Interaction of Poles and Zeros
 Closed and Open Loop Gain
 The Voltage Divider
 Pulse Width Modulator Transfer Function (gain)
 Voltage Feedforward
 Power Stage Transfer Function
 Plant Transfer Functions of All the Topologies
 Boost Converter
 Feedback Stage Transfer Functions
 Closing the Loop
 Criteria for Loop Stability
 Plotting the Openloop Gain and Phase with an Integrator
 Canceling the Double Pole of the LC Filter
 The ESR Zero
 Designing a Type 3 Opamp Compensation Network
 Optimizing the Feedback Loop
 Input Ripple Rejection
 Load Transients
 Type 1 and Type 2 Compensations
 Transconductance Opamp Compensation
 Simpler Transconductance Opamp Compensation
 Compensating with Current Mode Control (1/2)
 Compensating with Current Mode Control (2/2)
 CHAPTER 8  EMI from the Ground up—Maxwell to CISPR
 CHAPTER 9  Measurements and Limits of Conducted EMI
 CHAPTER 10  Practical EMI Line Filters
 CHAPTER 11  DM and CM Noise in Switching Power Supplies
 CHAPTER 12  Fixing EMI across the Board
 CHAPTER 13  Input Capacitor and Stability Considerations in EMI Filters
 CHAPTER 14  The Math behind the Electromagnetic Puzzle

APPENDIX 1  Focusing on Some Realworld Issues
 Sounds Like Worstcase, But There’s Danger Lurking in the Middle
 Loop Design Sometimes Compensates for Lowerquality Switchers
 Reinventing the Wheel ... as a Square
 The Mighty Zener
 Better Do the Math: Ignore Transfer Functions at Your Own Peril
 Aluminum Cap Multipliers—Why We Can’t Have Them and Eat Them Too
 Limit Your Peak Current, Not Your Reliability
 Reliability Is No Flash in the Pan
 The Incredible Shrinking Core
 Plain Lucky We Don’t Live in a PSpice World!
 Why Does the Ef.ciency of My Flyback Nosedive?
 It’s Not a Straight Line: Computing the Correct Drain to Source Resistance from VI Curves
 Don’t Have a Scope? Use a DMM, Dummy!
 Are We Making Light of Electronic Ballasts?
 More on Designing Reliable Electronic Ballasts
 The Organizational Side of Power Management: One Engineer’s Perspective
 APPENDIX 2  Reference Design Table
 References
 Index (1/3)
 Index (2/3)
 Index (3/3)
Product information
 Title: Switching Power Supplies A  Z
 Author(s):
 Release date: June 2006
 Publisher(s): Newnes
 ISBN: 9780080461557
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