3 Networks Fundamentals and Present Architectures

3.1 Network Infrastructure Architecture

The telecommunication network is perhaps the most complex infrastructure deployed by humankind. It is pervasive, reaching almost all parts of the world, and exploits a wide set of different technologies.

In this chapter, we will depict the current situation of the most advanced networks, con-sidering only wire-line access. Wireless access is another important part of the telecom-munication network, but it is out of the scope of this book.

Not all the carriers reach the same level of technology. Some carriers are not able to invest the required capital expenditure (CAPEX) to be technology updated in all parts of the network; others simply do not experiment ...

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