Chapter 5. Internet Tools and Techniques


Be strict in what you send, and lenient in what you accept.

 --Internet Engineering Task Force

Internet protocols in large measure are descriptions of textual formats. At the lowest level, TCP/IP is a binary protocol, but virtually every layer run on top of TCP/IP consists of textual messages exchanged between servers and clients. Some basic messages govern control, handshaking, and authentication issues, but the information content of the Internet predominantly consists of texts formatted according to two or three general patterns.

The handshaking and control aspects of Internet protocols usually consist of short commands—and sometimes challenges—sent during an initial conversation between a client and ...

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